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The Ontological Argument

Brian Leftow

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195138092
eISBN:
9780199835348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138090.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter presents and critically discusses the main historical variants of the “ontological argument,” a form of a priori argument for the existence of God pioneered by Anselm of Canterbury. I ... More


The Nature of Necessity

Alvin Plantinga

Published in print:
1978
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244141
eISBN:
9780191598241
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244142.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book is a study of the concept of necessity. In the first three chapters, I clarify and defend the distinction between modality de re and modality de dicto. Also, I show how to explain de re ... More


The Ontological Argument

Robert Merrihew Adams

in Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195126495
eISBN:
9780199870974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195126491.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Leibniz's version of the ontological argument, a modal argument for theism on which he worked most intensively in the 1670s, has two stages. The first, an “incomplete” proof, concludes that God can ... More


Another Proof of the Existence of God

David Cunning

in Argument and Persuasion in Descartes’ Meditations

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195399608
eISBN:
9780199866502
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195399608.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that the Fifth Meditation argument for God’s existence is like the Third Meditation arguments in that it does not depend on the premise that whatever we perceive clearly and ... More


A Partial Defence of the Classical Ontological Argument II

Yujin Nagasawa

in Maximal God: A New Defence of Perfect Being Theism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198758686
eISBN:
9780191818608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758686.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy

This chapter critically discusses another attempt to refute, without making any significant metaphysical or epistemic assumption, the classical ontological argument for perfect being theism. The ... More


Three Major Themes of Schopenhauer's Philosophy: Transcendental Idealism, Panpsychism, and Determinism

Barbara Hannan

in The Riddle of the World: A Reconsideration of Schopenhauer's Philosophy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195378948
eISBN:
9780199869589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378948.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In this chapter, the following are explained in detail and evaluated: (1) Schopenhauer's transcendental idealism; (2) Schopenhauer's metaphysics of Will, which may be described as a kind of animism ... More


Anselm and Actuality

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume I

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195032048
eISBN:
9780199833382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195032047.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Lewis demonstrates the infeasibility of attempting a nonmodal reformulation of Anslem's ontological argument. The key premise in Anselm's famous argument is the claim that “Something exists in the ... More


Field and Fregean Platonism

Crispin Wright

in The Reason's Proper Study: Essays towards a Neo-Fregean Philosophy of Mathematics

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198236399
eISBN:
9780191597565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198236395.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This paper starts by offering a brief reconstruction of the Neo‐Fregean approach as suggested in Frege's Conception of Numbers as Objects and distinguishes various challenges against the method of ... More


God and Necessity

Alvin Plantinga

in The Nature of Necessity

Published in print:
1978
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244141
eISBN:
9780191598241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244142.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In Ch.10, I apply the previous chapters’ account of modality to the Ontological Argument for the existence of God. I begin the chapter by attempting to develop a sound version of the Ontological ... More


The Proslogion Argument for the Existence of God

Sandra Visser and Thomas Williams

in Anselm

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195309386
eISBN:
9780199852123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309386.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter considers the Proslogion, where Anselm supplied a proof in the “ontological argument”. This argument was almost immediately misunderstood by Gaunilo, whose incomprehension has been a ... More


A Partial Defence of the Classical Ontological Argument I

Yujin Nagasawa

in Maximal God: A New Defence of Perfect Being Theism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198758686
eISBN:
9780191818608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758686.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy

This chapter presents a partial defence of the classical ontological argument for perfect being theism. It argues for the following three theses: (i) Anselm is the one who invented the classical ... More


Maximal God and the Modal Ontological Argument

Yujin Nagasawa

in Maximal God: A New Defence of Perfect Being Theism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198758686
eISBN:
9780191818608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758686.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy

This chapter offers a novel defence of the modal ontological argument for perfect being theism, which purports to derive the actuality of the existence of God from its possibility. The main focus is ... More


Existence and Essence

Robert Merrihew Adams

in Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195126495
eISBN:
9780199870974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195126491.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Argues that later developments in Leibniz's thinking about the relation between perfection and existence provide a more promising basis for a version of his ontological argument for theism – a ... More


Mendelssohn, Kant, and Proofs of the Existence of God in Kant’s Pre-Critical Period

Paul Guyer

in Reason and Experience in Mendelssohn and Kant

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198850335
eISBN:
9780191885389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198850335.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter reviews Mendelssohn’s early defense of the ontological and cosmological arguments for the existence of God, then examines Kant’s criticism of those arguments, especially in his 1763 book ... More


Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist

Robert Merrihew Adams

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195126495
eISBN:
9780199870974
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195126491.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Explores the contributions of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) to three areas of metaphysics. Part One (Chs. 1–3) is concerned with his determinism, chronicling his efforts to retain a place in ... More


Tragedy, Recognition, and the Death of God: Studies in Hegel and Nietzsche

Robert R. Williams

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199656059
eISBN:
9780191744846
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656059.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This book explores convergences between Hegel and Nietzsche on four themes: (1) Philosophies of tragedy that overcome the traditional suppression and exclusion of tragedy by both philosophy and ... More


Existence

Colin McGinn

in Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241811
eISBN:
9780191598029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241813.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The ‘naïve view’ of existence, according to which ‘exists’ is a genuine predicate, expressing a genuine property, is defended against the orthodox Russellian view, which maintains that to predicate ... More


Mathematics, Reality, and God

Paul A. Schweitzer

in Teaching the Tradition: Catholic Themes in Academic Disciplines

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199795307
eISBN:
9780199932894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199795307.003.0013
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Simplicity and symmetry are the heart of beauty in mathematics. Beauty often motivates mathematicians and physicists. Einstein said that his theory of general relativity had to be true because it was ... More


Essence and Existence

Bede Rundle

in Why there is Something rather than Nothing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199270507
eISBN:
9780191601392
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270503.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is difficult to see how purely philosophical considerations might lead to an understanding of why there should be anything at all. After looking at the cosmological and ontological arguments for ... More


Presumption of Possibility

Robert Merrihew Adams

in Leibniz: Determinist, Theist, Idealist

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195126495
eISBN:
9780199870974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195126491.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Leibniz held that even if we had no proof of the possibility premise of the ontological argument, a presumption would justify accepting it. He had an extensive theory of presumptions, as a part of ... More


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