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The People

Sydney D. Bailey and Sam Daws

in The Procedure of the UN Security Council

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198280736
eISBN:
9780191598746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198280734.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Looks at the people that make up the UN Security Council. It starts with sections on the Secretary‐General and the President, and goes on to discuss permanent members (of which there are five — from ... More


Comparisons and Comment

D. D. Raphael

in The Impartial Spectator: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199213337
eISBN:
9780191707544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213337.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Smith's theory of the impartial spectator is superior to a recent theory with which it has been compared, Roderick Firth's ‘ideal observer’ theory of moral judgement. Smith's notion has also been ... More


Hypnosis

Tim Bayne

in The Unity of Consciousness

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199215386
eISBN:
9780191594786
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215386.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

This chapter examines the claim that the unity of consciousness is lost in the context of forms of hypnosis that involve a ‘hidden observer.’ According to a number of theorists—most notably ... More


Meta‐conceivability and Thought Experiments

Roy Sorensen

in The Architecture of the Imagination: New Essays on Pretence, Possibility, and Fiction

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199275731
eISBN:
9780191706103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199275731.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A meta-conception is a hypothetical one. It answers a question by imagining someone (usually a more able conceiver) answering that question via an act of imagination. Thus, meta-conceptions stand to ... More


Ideal-Observer Models of Cue Integration

Michael S. Landy, Martin S. Banks, and David C. Knill

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a general introduction to the field of cue combination from the perspective of optimal cue integration. It works through a number of qualitatively different problems and ... More


Optimality Principles Apply to a Broad Range of Information Integration Problems in Perception and Action

Melchi M. Michel, Anne-Marie Brouwer, Robert A. Jacobs, and David C. Knill

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes two research projects that evaluated whether people's judgments are predicted by those of the standard ideal observer in more complex situations. The first project, conducted ... More


Hume's Paralogisms

Henry E. Allison

in Custom and Reason in Hume: A Kantian Reading of the First Book of the Treatise

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199532889
eISBN:
9780191714450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532889.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter deals with the two sections that Hume devotes to the mind or self: the first to its nature (material or immaterial), the second to its identity (personal identity). Hume's account of the ... More


The Experimenter as Observer

Robert Rosenthal

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses some of the disciplines that have shown a self-conscious awareness of the problem of observer effects. These include the physical sciences, biological sciences, behavioral ... More


UN‐led reconstruction following UN‐led negotiations: El Salvador 2

Graciana del Castillo

in Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199237739
eISBN:
9780191717239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237739.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

In El Salvador, the UN mediated a peace agreement and ONUSAL played a major supporting role in its implementation. An elected government made all executive decisions and set priorities for economic ... More


Science and Determinism

David Hodgson

in Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199845309
eISBN:
9780199932269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199845309.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

In Chapter 7, I consider whether the general picture of the world suggested by the physical sciences is compatible with my position. I argue that the best contemporary physical theories support two ... More


Left Feminism, 1947–1964

Judith N. McArthur and Harold L. Smith

in Minnie Fisher Cunningham: A Suffragist's Life in Politics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195304862
eISBN:
9780199871537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304862.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Despite the perception that the national women's movement was moribund, a promising Left Feminist movement was emerging when World War II ended. Cunningham was a leader of this movement in Texas, ... More


Likelihoods and likelihood ratios

Thomas D. Wickens

in Elementary Signal Detection Theory

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195092509
eISBN:
9780199893812
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092509.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Likelihoods — the probabilities treated as a function of their parameters — are a key concept in statistical decision theory. When applied to signal detection, they give a general method for ... More


In The Eye of the Beholder

Michael Munowitz

in Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195167375
eISBN:
9780199787104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

No observer is without bias. Physical observations are always made within some arbitrarily drawn reference frame, and any objective description of nature must necessarily be independent of the ... More


Mass as a Medium

Michael Munowitz

in Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195167375
eISBN:
9780199787104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Newtonian mechanics is revisited in the light of Einsteinian relativity, and the repercussions shake physics to its core. Special relativity, by placing all inertial observers on the same footing, ... More


The Rules of Fate

Katharina Volk

in Manilius and his Intellectual Background

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199265220
eISBN:
9780191708800
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199265220.003.0003
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

The chapter dicusses the system of astrology that Manilius describes in Books 2-5 of his Astronomica. It begins with an exposition of the tenets of ancient astrology, pointing out that Manilius' ... More


The Attraction of Tory Democracy: Keith Feiling

Reba N. Soffer

in History, Historians, and Conservatism in Britain and America: From the Great War to Thatcher and Reagan

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199208111
eISBN:
9780191709210
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208111.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

Emerging as the first of a new generation of conservative polemicists in 1913, Feiling continued writing as a paternalistic Tory democrat for the rest of his life. His successive repetitions of ... More


A Lament for Generations to Come?

Gabriel Sheffer

in Moshe Sharett: Biography of a Political Moderate

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198279945
eISBN:
9780191684326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198279945.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Out of political necessity and some mutual respect, Shertok and Ben–Gurion strove to maintain their troubled coalition, but it was inevitable that the two would continue to clash. The next ... More


The Emergence of Classicality from Quantum Theory

Erich Joos

in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199544318
eISBN:
9780191701351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544318.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

A thoroughgoing and consistent application of quantum theory shows that the connection between classical and quantum physics is very different from what can be found in standard textbooks. In the ... More


Managing Stage Fright

Stewart Gordon

in Mastering the Art of Performance: A Primer for Musicians

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195177435
eISBN:
9780199864690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177435.003.10
Subject:
Music, Performing Practice/Studies

This chapter explains techniques for dealing with pre-performance anxiety, or stage fright. They include defining residual tension, the use of diversion, the value of dress rehearsals, playing it to ... More


The Observed and their Observers

Sylvia Harcstark Myers

in The Bluestocking Circle: Women, Friendship, and the Life of the Mind in Eighteenth-Century England

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198117674
eISBN:
9780191671043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198117674.003.0015
Subject:
Literature, Poetry, Women's Literature

This chapter discusses the power of publicity and its contributions to ‘bluestocking fame’. Discussions on observation, the observers, and the observed are included in this chapter. However, it is ... More


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