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External Validity Reconsidered

Diana C. Mutz

in Population-Based Survey Experiments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter talks about the significance of generalizability. Experimentalists often go to great lengths to argue that student or other convenience samples are not problematic in terms of external ... More


Combining results from several studies: systematic review and meta-analysis

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.08
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part discusses systematic reviews and the role of meta-analysis. The second part presents the most widely used statistical methods for meta-analysis ... More


Evaluating and ReportingQuasi-Experimental Studies

Bruce A Thyer

in Quasi-Experimental Research Designs

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195387384
eISBN:
9780199932085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387384.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This concluding chapter describes various schemes that have been devised to help systematically appraise the quality of a a given quasi-experimental study. Particular attention is given the the ... More


Observational Cohort Studies

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

In contrast to a randomized trial, an observational cohort study is one in which the investigator observes a group of participants with varying levels of an exposure and then follows-up those ... More


Epidemiology and biostatistics

Nizam Damani

in Manual of Infection Prevention and Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199698356
eISBN:
9780191732126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698356.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses epidemiology and biostatistics. Epidemiology is defined as ‘the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states, conditions, or events in specified ... More


Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Mark Elwood

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book presents a logical system of critical appraisal, and facilitates studies to be evaluated and carried out effectively. This system emphasizes the central importance of cause and effect ... More


Selection of subjects for study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.04
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter deals with how subjects are selected for inclusion in analytical and intervention studies. To interpret a study, one must assess the problems that may have been overcome, or introduced, ... More


Harm

Michael B. Bracken

in Risk, Chance, and Causation: Investigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300188844
eISBN:
9780300189551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300188844.003.0006
Subject:
History, Environmental History

This chapter discusses two large classes of observational study—prospective and retrospective. Each class comes with inherent variations in methodology that carry the potential for sufficient bias to ... More


What have we learnt for future research and knowledge exchange?

Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper, Rebecca Hardy, James Goodwin, Marcus Richards, and Yoav Ben-Shlomo

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A common criticism of empirical science is its failure to translate findings into useful outcomes for society. While knowledge creation is a valuable objective, there is increasing expectation on ... More


Statistical Issues in HIV Prevention

Ron Brookmeyer

in Quantitative Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300087512
eISBN:
9780300128222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300087512.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter explores the key statistical issues that emerge in the design and analysis of HIV prevention studies. It focuses on the strengths and limitations of various study designs including ... More


Research on Process and Outcomes

Lawrence A. Palinkas

in Translation and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195398489
eISBN:
9780199928583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398489.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter reviews the latest methods in research on the process and outcomes of research translation in social work practice. First, we examine some of the principles and practices of ... More


Why bother going outside: the role of observational studies in understanding biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships

Simon F. Thrush and Andrew M. Lohrer

in Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Frameworks, methodologies, and integration

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642250
eISBN:
9780191774768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642250.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter examines how observational studies can help in the design, execution, and interpretation of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships. It first analyses the heterogeneous nature of ... More


Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Daniel Westreich

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

As the cornerstone science of public health, evidence-based medicine, and comparative effectiveness research, a clear understanding of study designs is central to the study of epidemiology. Causal ... More


Splendors and Miseries of Associations

Geoffrey C. Kabat

in Getting Risk Right: Understanding the Science of Elusive Health Risks

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231166461
eISBN:
9780231542852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231166461.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Studies reporting associations between an exposure and a disease most often come from observational studies. These studies, while useful, cannot be taken at face value, and it is crucial to ... More


Random Error

David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius

in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190243777
eISBN:
9780190243807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Random error refers to the non-systematic reasons that estimated values deviate from the correct values. The processes that give rise to random error, either sampling or allocation across treatments, ... More


Patterns, Real and Imagined: Observation and Theory

Michael R. Powers

in Acts of God and Man: Ruminations on Risk and Insurance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153676
eISBN:
9780231527057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153676.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter addresses the fundamental problems of separating signals from noise in modeling risk-related phenomena. It gives particular attention to the Titius-Bode law (TBL) of exponentially ... More


Wrong Answers: When Simple Interpretations Create Complex Problems

David S. Fink and Katherine M. Keyes

in Systems Science and Population Health

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780190492397
eISBN:
9780190492427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190492397.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Observational and experimental studies can often abstract complex systems in order to understand the effects of changing discrete elements of that process. Underappreciating that societies form a ... More


Identifying Public Health Problems

Scott Burris, Micah L. Berman, Matthew Penn, and, and Tara Ramanathan Holiday

in The New Public Health Law: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Practice and Advocacy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190681050
eISBN:
9780190681081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190681050.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Chapter 5 discusses the use of epidemiology to identify the source of public health problems and inform policymaking. It uses a case study to illustrate how researchers, policymakers, and ... More


In Search of Sound Policy on Nonconsensual Uses of Identifiable Health Data

Barbara J. Evans

in Human Subjects Research Regulation: Perspectives on the Future

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027465
eISBN:
9780262320825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027465.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter discusses informational (observational) studies that use pre-existing data or biospecimens. It summarizes existing regulatory pathways for gaining research or public health access to ... More


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