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Developmental Methods for Studying Social Learning

William Hoppitt and Kevin N. Laland

in Social Learning: An Introduction to Mechanisms, Methods, and Models

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691150703
eISBN:
9781400846504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150703.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter describes developmental methods for studying social learning. Developmental approaches can be broadly divided into two types. The first type includes approaches that involve collecting ... More


Credible Use of Evidence to Inform Patient Care

Charles F. Manski

in Patient Care under Uncertainty

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691194738
eISBN:
9780691195360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691194738.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter describes research on identification, whose aim is credible use of evidence to inform patient care. Methodological research should aim to determine the information relevant to patient ... More


Non-experimental quantitative methods

John Hutton and Peter Smith

in What works?: Evidence-based policy and practice in public services

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861341914
eISBN:
9781447304265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861341914.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

For all the interest in experimentation, the majority of quantitative evidence used to form policy and practice takes the form of observational rather than experimental data. The volume of ... More


Observational Data: Detailed Characteristics in the Frequency Domain

Sarbani Basu and William J. Chaplin

in Asteroseismic Data Analysis: Foundations and Techniques

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691162928
eISBN:
9781400888207
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691162928.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter details the frequency-domain properties of observational data on stars. It is from the analysis of the frequency spectrum of the observations that the asteroseismic parameters are ... More


Seeing Things for What They Are

Gary Smith and Jay Cordes

in The Phantom Pattern Problem: The Mirage of Big Data

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198864165
eISBN:
9780191896514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864165.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Patterns need not be combinations of numbers. For example, employees—ranging from clerks to CEOs—who do their jobs extremely well are often less successful when they are promoted to new positions—a ... More


Cultural Transmission in Dispersing Primates

Lydia V. Luncz and Erica Van De

in Chimpanzees in Context: A Comparative Perspective on Chimpanzee Behavior, Cognition, Conservation, and Welfare

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226727844
eISBN:
9780226728032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226728032.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

The study of culture in wild animals has received increasing attention of researchers from different disciplines and has evolved from studying differences across groups to identifying underlying ... More


Predicting What is Predictable

Gary Smith and Jay Cordes

in The Phantom Pattern Problem: The Mirage of Big Data

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198864165
eISBN:
9780191896514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864165.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Coincidental correlations are useless for making predictions. In order to predict something, it has to be predictable; there must be an underlying causal structure—a real reason for the correlation. ... More


A statistical symphony: instrumental variables reveal causality and control measurement error

Bruce E. Kendall

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Ecologists are increasingly using non-experimental data—both “natural experiments” and observational data from monitoring programs—to address questions that cannot be addressed in controlled ... More


Why Statistics Is Slippery: Easy Algorithms Fail in Biology

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199396412
eISBN:
9780199396436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199396412.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The chapter evaluates the well-known statistical-significance rule for discovering hypotheses and shows that, because scientists routinely misuse this rule, especially with observational and not ... More


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