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Why be Hanged for Even a Lamb?

Nancy Cartwright

in Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply from Bas C. van Fraassen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199218844
eISBN:
9780191711732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199218844.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines van Fraassen's motivation for restricting his scientific theoretical commitments to claims about observables. Many critics have argued that the observable/unobservable ... More


Tests Of The Gauge Structure Of QCD: Colour Factors

GÜNTHER DISSERTORI, IAN G. KNOWLES, and MICHAEL SCHMELLING

in Quantum Chromodynamics: High Energy Experiments and Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199566419
eISBN:
9780191708060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566419.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines the QCD lagrangian, focusing on the gauge group governing the dynamics of strong interactions. Experiments are described which verify that QCD is based on the gauge group SU(3). ... More


Basics of treatment effect analysis

Myoung-Jae Lee

in Micro-Econometrics for Policy, Program and Treatment Effects

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199267699
eISBN:
9780191603044
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199267693.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

For a treatment and a response variable, the ‘causal effects’ of the former on the latter is of interest. This chapter introduces causality based on ‘potential-treated and untreated-responses’, and ... More


Unobserved Heterogeneity

Manuel Arellano

in Panel Data Econometrics

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199245284
eISBN:
9780191602481
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199245282.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Unobserved heterogeneity is one instance in where correlation between observables and unobservables may be expected. This has been a pervasive problem in cross-sectional analysis. A major motivation ... More


BOSONIZATION

Thierry Giamarchi

in Quantum Physics in One Dimension

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525004
eISBN:
9780191711909
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525004.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter explains bosonization, a useful technique for describing the low-energy properties of one-dimensional systems. Bosonization is introduced by presenting a model on which this method is ... More


Operator mechanics

Efstratios Manousakis

in Practical Quantum Mechanics: Modern Tools and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198749349
eISBN:
9780191813474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749349.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses the need to use operator in quantum mechanics and how the operators relate to observables.


Simultaneous observables

Efstratios Manousakis

in Practical Quantum Mechanics: Modern Tools and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198749349
eISBN:
9780191813474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749349.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter discusses when two observables, which are represented by operators, –can be simultaneously observable. The chapter discusses the uncertainty principle in the general case and when two ... More


Real Anti‐realism: The Evidential Approach

Sherrilyn Roush

in Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199274734
eISBN:
9780191603228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199274738.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that confirmation theory is relevant to the debate between epistemological realism and anti-realism about scientific theories, because typical realist and anti-realist claims ... More


Basic Quantum Mechanics

Stephen C. Rand

in Lectures on Light: Nonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199574872
eISBN:
9780191722219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574872.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of the de Broglie wave concept that is the foundation of quantum mechanics. The idea that particles can exhibit wave‐like behavior is an important part of the ... More


The Basic Theory of Quantum Mechanics

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Covered are Hilbert space, vector, and operator representations of pure and mixed states, measurable physical quantities (observables), Gleason's theorem, Lueders’ Rule, unitary operators, and ... More


Critique of the Standard Interpretation

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239802
eISBN:
9780191597466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239807.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Von Neumann's unification of Schroedinger's and Heisenberg's formalisms came with an interpretation of quantum theory involving two principles. The first is that assertions about the values of ... More


EVOLUTION OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

R. F. Casten

in Nuclear Structure from a Simple Perspective

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507246
eISBN:
9780191709333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507246.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

A focus on the excitations of a given nucleus is known as the ‘vertical’ approach to nuclear structure and has been the empirical cornerstone of nuclear physics and the inspiration for countless ... More


QCD Analyses

GÜNTHER DISSERTORI, IAN G. KNOWLES, and MICHAEL SCHMELLING

in Quantum Chromodynamics: High Energy Experiments and Theory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199566419
eISBN:
9780191708060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566419.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

While perturbative QCD deals with free quarks and gluons, experimentally, usually only multi-hadron final states are observed. This chapter focuses on how to extract information about QCD from the ... More


Measurements in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Heinz-Peter Breuer and Francesco Petruccione

in The Theory of Open Quantum Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199213900
eISBN:
9780191706349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213900.003.11
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter develops the theory of measurements in relativistic quantum mechanics. The presentation is based on the idea to consider the state of a relativistic quantum system as a functional on the ... More


Is Particle Physics Particle Physics?

Laura Ruetsche

in Interpreting Quantum Theories

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199535408
eISBN:
9780191728525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535408.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops a case for attributing quantum field theory a particle ontology. When the space of physical states of the theory resides in a Fock space, the observables constituting a particle ... More


Beyond the Perception-Behavior Link: The Ubiquitous Utility and Motivational Moderators of Nonconscious Mimicry

Tanya L. Chartrand, William W. Maddux, and Jessica L. Lakin

in The New Unconscious

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195307696
eISBN:
9780199847488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307696.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Perception and behavior are inextricably intertwined such that people automatically behave as they perceive. This “perception–behavior link” refers to the unintentional, nonconscious effects of ... More


The formal framework of linear-response TDDFT

Carsten A. Ullrich

in Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory: Concepts and Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199563029
eISBN:
9780191775130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563029.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the linear-response framework of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). It begins with a thorough and self-contained exposition of general linear-response theory for ... More


Sceptical veils of various fabrics

Tim Button

in The Limits of Realism

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199672172
eISBN:
9780191758393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672172.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 5 raised problems for external realists who accepted a bracketed empiricist theory of empirical content. Many external realists do, indeed, accept such a theory of empirical content. But in ... More


Renormalisation of Yang–Mills Theory and BRST Symmetry

Laurent Baulieu, John Iliopoulos, and Roland Sénéor

in From Classical to Quantum Fields

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780198788393
eISBN:
9780191830310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198788393.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Detailed discussion of the renormalisation properties of gauge theories based on the BRST Ward identities. General discussion of possible anomalies. Gauge independence of observable quantities.


Basic Quantum Mechanics

Stephen C. Rand

in Lectures on Light: Nonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198757450
eISBN:
9780191817830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198757450.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Chapter 2 begins with a discussion of the de Broglie wave concept that is the foundation of quantum mechanics. The idea that particles can exhibit wave-like behavior is an important part of the ... More


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