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Empirical Ideality, Reality, and Matter

Kurt Smith

in Matter Matters: Metaphysics and Methodology in the Early Modern Period

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199583652
eISBN:
9780191723155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583652.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter explores the sense in which Descartes took matter to be empirically real. This requires the chapter to look at the Sixth Meditation proof for the existence of bodies. Here, the chapter ... More


The Idea of a Supreme Being

David Cunning

in Argument and Persuasion in Descartes’ Meditations

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195399608
eISBN:
9780199866502
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195399608.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter offers a reading of the Third Meditation argument from objective reality according to which Descartes’ central premise—the causal principle that the cause of the objective reality of an ... More


Beyond Scepticism: ‘For—There Is No “Truth” ’

Peter Poellner

in Nietzsche and Metaphysics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250630
eISBN:
9780191598258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250630.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

As well as drawing sceptical conclusions, Nietzsche rejects the concept of absolute or metaphysical truth as unintelligible. Nietzsche's views are elucidated by contrasting his arguments with ... More


Causes, Existence, and Ideas

Thomas C. Vinci

in Cartesian Truth

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195113297
eISBN:
9780199833825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195113292.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

There are two main formulations of a key causal principle in the Cartesian a priori philosophical system: one, present in Meditation III, says that the cause of the representational content ... More


Descartes' Account of Ideas and the Puzzle of Sensory Representation

Raffaella De Rosa

in Descartes and the Puzzle of Sensory Representation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199570379
eISBN:
9780191722455
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570379.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, History of Philosophy

This chapter presents the textual evidence and argumentations that lead up to the theoretical issues discussed in the following chapters. It argues that Descartes held a descriptivist account of ... More


Truth, Existence, and Ideas

Thomas C. Vinci

in Cartesian Truth

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195113297
eISBN:
9780199833825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195113292.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

There are two main objectives in this chapter: (1) to give a preliminary formal statement of the inference from my ideas to the existence of things outside my ideas in Descartes's epistemology, and ... More


The Challenge to the Unitary Individual in Western Thought

Gilles Saint-Paul

in The Tyranny of Utility: Behavioral Social Science and the Rise of Paternalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128177
eISBN:
9781400838899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128177.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter explores the strands of thought challenging the hypothesis of a rational unitary individual. One prominent critic was Friedrich Nietzsche. For Nietszche, the individual's attempt to ... More


Empirical Research; Philosophical Conclusions

Fred Feldman

in What Is This Thing Called Happiness?

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199571178
eISBN:
9780191722547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571178.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Philosophers and others have alleged that empirical research on happiness has important implications for some long‐standing philosophical questions about happiness. The distinguished British ... More


Plutarch against Colotes on Democritus’ νόμω‐Thesis

Eleni Kechagia

in Plutarch Against Colotes: A Lesson in History of Philosophy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199597239
eISBN:
9780191731495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199597239.003.0007
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

This chapter examines in detail Plutarch's arguments in response to Colotes' criticism of the well-known Democritean thesis that everything other than atoms and the void is what it is ‘by ... More


Mind-Body Interaction in Descartes

Stephen I. Wagner

in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195075519
eISBN:
9780199853052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195075519.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses a re-emerging topic in Cartesian scholarship—mind and body interaction. A number of thinkers, from his contemporaries onward, have maintained that Descartes' account of his two ... More


Meditation III: The Criterion of Truth and the Existence of God

Georges Dicker

in Descartes: An Analytic and Historical Introduction

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780195380323
eISBN:
9780190267452
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195380323.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Descartes's argument for the existence of God as well as the criticisms and objections deconstructing that argument. The “core” argument is framed by concepts of objective ... More


Descartes and the Action of Body on Mind

Nicholas Jolley

in Causality and Mind: Essays on Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199669554
eISBN:
9780191763076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669554.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Some modern scholars such as Loeb have defended Descartes’ doctrine of mind-body interaction by arguing that it is not inconsistent with his Causal Adequacy Principle. This chapter seeks to extend ... More


Cognition

Thomas Nagel

in Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199919758
eISBN:
9780199980369
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919758.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines another type of antireductionist argument and its consequences. It first identifies the problem concerning mental functions such as reasoning, thought, and evaluation that are ... More


Spatiotemporal Extension

Michael Epperson

in Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823223190
eISBN:
9780823235551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823223190.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The history of an environmental system revolves around its components, and the conception of these local systems within a larger network comprises the spatiotemporal ... More


On the Reality (and Diversity) of Objective Colors: How Color-Qualia Space Is a Map of Reflectance-Profile Space

Paul M. Churchland

in Color Ontology and Color Science

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013857
eISBN:
9780262312493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013857.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter focuses on the problematic nature of objective colors, which have been relegated to being “a power in an object to produce in us an experience with a certain qualitative character.” For ... More


Material World and Objective Reality

Massimiliano Di Ventra

in The Scientific Method: Reflections from a Practitioner

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198825623
eISBN:
9780191864605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198825623.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter defines the object of study of the Natural Sciences: the unique material reality existing irrespective of the observer. This is a logical necessity for scientists to even start doing ... More


Ritual Purity and Impurity

Menachem Kellner

in Maimonides' Confrontation with Mysticism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9781904113294
eISBN:
9781800340381
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781904113294.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter assesses ritual purity and impurity, beginning with a discussion of two competing views. The debate between the text from Heikhalot rabati and the story about Rabban Johanan ben Zakai is ... More


The Evolution of Actuality to Probability

Michael Epperson

in Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823223190
eISBN:
9780823235551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823223190.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter depicts the spectrum between reality and potentiality, generally by providing diagrams, graphs, and variables along with their corresponding details and ... More


Malebranche: The Theory of Ideas

Nicholas Jolley

in The Light of the Soul: Theories of Ideas in Leibniz, Malebranche, and Descartes

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238195
eISBN:
9780191597824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238193.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Malebranche holds that the Cartesian doctrine of ideas not merely conflates logic and psychology, but it thereby opens the door to scepticism and to a voluntarist theory of the eternal truths, which ... More


A Plan with the Force of a Battleship

Alexander Kluge

Richard Langston (ed.)

in Difference and Orientation: An Alexander Kluge Reader

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781501739200
eISBN:
9781501739224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501739200.003.0013
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter explores Alexander Kluge's retrospective evaluation of Soviet avant-garde cinema practices. Kluge recounts Sergei Eisenstein's plan in 1927 to film Capital, “based on the scenario by ... More


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