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All Hypotheses Are Not Created Equal

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

The null hypothesis offers close to null prediction. Directional hypotheses are relatively easy to satisfy and offer correspondingly vague predictions. Quantitative hypotheses (models) are hard to ... More


Tactical Note on the Relation Between Scientific and Statistical Hypotheses

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explores the relationship between scientific hypotheses and the customary procedures of classical statistical inference. It argues that classical significance tests are violently biased ... More


One-Sample and Difference-of-Means Tests

Quan Li

in Using R for Data Analysis in Social Sciences: A Research Project-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190656218
eISBN:
9780190656256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190656218.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter demonstrates the types of questions one could ask about a continuous random variable of interest and answer using statistical inference. It provides conceptual preparation for ... More


Unit Root Inference

Luc Bauwens, Michel Lubrano, and Jean-François Richard

in Bayesian Inference in Dynamic Econometric Models

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198773122
eISBN:
9780191695315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198773122.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter examines the application of the unit root hypothesis in econometric analysis, particularly in the Bayesian inference approach. It explains that testing for a unit root in a Bayesian ... More


Approaches to statistical inference

Michael A. McCarthy

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

If your data does not require statistical analysis, then you are probably not doing ecology. In an environment that can be very variable, and where data are usually expensive or difficult to collect, ... More


Confirmation, Refutation, and the Evidence of fMRI

Christopher Mole and Colin Klein

in Foundational Issues in Human Brain Mapping

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014021
eISBN:
9780262265850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014021.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter focuses on the confirmation, refutation, and evidence of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and discusses the application of neuroimaging techniques to various fields, ... More


Inferential Analysis

Peter Miksza and Kenneth Elpus

in Design and Analysis for Quantitative Research in Music Education

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199391905
eISBN:
9780199391943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199391905.003.0005
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Performing Practice/Studies

Researchers often employ statistical techniques to test hypotheses and to express the relative certainty they have when making a claim about how statistics derived from their sample data might be ... More


Bubbles, Food Prices, and Speculation: Evidence from the CFTC’s Daily Large Trader Data Files

Nicole M. Aulerich, Scott H. Irwin, and Philip Garcia

in The Economics of Food Price Volatility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226128924
eISBN:
9780226129082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129082.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The “Masters Hypothesis” claims that unprecedented buying pressures from new financial index investors created a massive bubble in agricultural futures prices at various times in recent years. This ... More


Inferential Statistics

Karen A. Randolph and Laura L. Myers

in Basic Statistics in Multivariate Analysis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199764044
eISBN:
9780199332533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764044.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Chapter 3 focuses on inferential statistics, statistical methods that use data observed in a sample to make hypotheses or predictions about data that have not been observed in the larger population. ... More


Surrogates for Theories

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The most important thing is to define candidate hypotheses before starting the business of hypothesis testing. Null hypothesis testing encourages theoretical laziness. To use it, one does not need to ... More


Hypothesis Tests and Corroboration

Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780199672110
eISBN:
9780191881671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

According to Popper and other influential philosophers and scientists, scientific knowledge grows by repeatedly testing our best hypotheses. However, the interpretation of non-significant ... More


Lessons from Exotic Birds

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

in Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter presents some overall conclusions from the work that has been reviewed, together with some thoughts on prospects for the future. In particular, the major lessons that have emerged so far ... More


How Bayesian statistics are needed to determine whether mental states are unconscious

Zoltan Dienes

in Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780199688890
eISBN:
9780191801785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688890.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Inferring that a mental state is unconscious often rests on affirming a null hypothesis. For example, for perception to be below an objective threshold, discrimination about stimulus properties must ... More


Coda

James G. Sanderson and Stuart L. Pimm

in Patterns In Nature: The Analysis of Species Co-Occurrences

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226292724
eISBN:
9780226292861
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226292861.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

We find the patterns intriguing for several reasons. This is not because we are surprised by competition as a process. There is abundant evidence that similar species compete. What is interesting is ... More


Hypothesis Testing

D. Brynn Hibbert and J. Justin Gooding

in Data Analysis for Chemistry: An Introductory Guide for Students and Laboratory Scientists

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162103
eISBN:
9780197562086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162103.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

To understand the concept of the null hypothesis and the role of Type I and Type II errors. • To test that data are normally distributed and whether a datum is an outlier. • To determine whether ... More


Statistical Conclusion Validity

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 6 addresses the sub-category of internal validity defined by Shadish et al., as statistical conclusion validity, or “validity of inferences about the correlation (covariance) between ... More


Tests of Statistical Significance

Brian D. Haig

in The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods: Understanding Statistics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190222055
eISBN:
9780190871734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190222055.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of null hypothesis significance testing and points out its primary defects. It then outlines the neo-Fisherian account of tests of statistical significance, along ... More


The role of numbers in historical linguistics

Gard B. Jenset and Barbara McGillivray

in Quantitative Historical Linguistics: A Corpus Framework

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780198718178
eISBN:
9780191787515
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198718178.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

Chapter 6 discusses the relationship between numbers or frequencies and historical linguistic arguments. Grounded in the principles laid out in Chapter 2, the benefits of using arguments based on ... More


Statistics

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0006
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

This chapter will provide background to enable the reader to understand basic statistics and be able then to follow more complex statistical ideas. Although statistics is more than the mere ... More


Covariance and Correlation

Quan Li

in Using R for Data Analysis in Social Sciences: A Research Project-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190656218
eISBN:
9780190656256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190656218.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter begins with the substantive question of whether trade openness and economic growth are correlated, which motivates both data preparation and statistical analysis. The chapter first ... More


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