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SNPs, HapMap, and common disease

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

The extent of single nucleotide polymorphism is reviewed, together with insights gained into the nature of allelic architecture in terms of haplotypes, linkage disequilibrium and recombination. The ... More


Genetic Polymorphisms

Daniel L. Hartl

in A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198862291
eISBN:
9780191895074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862291.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to genes and how they work for those without the necessary background or for review. Its emphasis is on the major types of genetic polymorphisms including ... More


Fine scale sequence diversity and signatures of selection

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Genetic diversity observed in human populations provides unique insights into the selective pressures which have shaped our recent evolutionary past. Evidence to support this view is described in ... More


Quantifying genetic variation at the molecular level

Asher D. Cutter

in A Primer of Molecular Population Genetics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198838944
eISBN:
9780191874826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838944.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 3, “Quantifying genetic variation at the molecular level,” introduces quantitative methods for measuring variation directly in DNA sequences to help decipher fundamental properties of ... More


Association Tests that Accommodate Genotyping Uncertainty *

Thomas A. Louis, Benilton S. Carvalho, M. Daniele Fallin, Rafael A. Irizarryi, Qing Li, and Ingo Ruczinski

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

High‐throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, typically used in genome‐wide association studies with a trait of interest, provide estimates of genotypes for up to several million loci. ... More


Biological or Social: Allelic Variation and the Making of Race in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Research

Michael J. Montoya

in Making the Mexican Diabetic: Race, Science, and the Genetics of Inequality

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520267305
eISBN:
9780520949003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267305.003.0002
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

This chapter argues that neither race nor ethnicity account for the ethnoracial classificatory iterations found in genetic epidemiological research. It problematizes the simplistic race/no-race ... More


The Molecular Basis of Variation and Inheritance

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The human genome varies by about 0.5% between individuals as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions, deletions, inversions, and duplications of longer sequences. Patterns of ... More


Molecular quantitative genetics

Henrik Jensen, Marta Szulkin, and Jon Slate

in Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199674237
eISBN:
9780191779275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674237.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Ecology

Recent development of high-throughput genomics tools has made it possible and affordable to examine the molecular basis of variation in quantitative traits in studies of non-model species in the ... More


Genetics in field ecology and conservation

Nancy N. FitzSimmons and Joanna Sumner

in Reptile Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780198726135
eISBN:
9780191825934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726135.003.0025
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the importance of genetics in questions of ecology and conservation, as genetic analyses have provided tremendous insights into the behaviour of reptiles, their evolution, and ... More


Bioethnic Conscription

Michael J. Montoya

in Making the Mexican Diabetic: Race, Science, and the Genetics of Inequality

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520267305
eISBN:
9780520949003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267305.003.0007
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

This chapter tries to demonstrate how genetic epidemiologists are required to overtly position their knowledge within the sociohistorical context of its production, and advances the concept of ... More


Nutrition, Genetics, and Human Performance During Military Training

Erin Gaffney-Stomberg and James P. McClung

in Human Performance Optimization: The Science and Ethics of Enhancing Human Capabilities

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190455132
eISBN:
9780190455156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190455132.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Military personnel train and conduct operations in environments that result in exposure to multiple stressors such as caloric deprivation, physical and psychological strain, and increased energy ... More


Populations in Statistical Genetic Modelling and Inference

Daniel John Lawson

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter reviews approaches to how populations of sexually reproducing individuals are defined statistically via genetic criteria. It addresses the question of whether there is a meaningful and ... More


Population Genetics: the study of the genetic structure of human populations

Walter Bodmer and Bruce Winney

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Over the twentieth century, population genetics has enabled progressively finer subpopulation specification. This chapter traces the development of concepts and methods, beginning with the use of ... More


Landscape Genetic Approaches to Understanding Movement and Gene Flow in Cities

Jason Munshi-South and Jonathan L. Richardson

in Urban Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198836841
eISBN:
9780191873843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198836841.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Cities are home to a continuum of species that range from those specially adapted to exploit urban habitats, to others passing through as transient dispersers. Urbanization often has a profound ... More


Genome-wide association studies

Thomas W Mühleisen and Sven Cichon

in Genes, brain, and emotions: Interdisciplinary and Translational Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198793014
eISBN:
9780191834745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198793014.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have evolved over the past ten years into a very successful tool for investigating the genetic architecture of multifactorial human traits and disorders. One ... More


Human Kinship as a Green Beard

Henry Harpending and Nathan Harris

in Darwin's Bridge: Uniting the Humanities and Sciences

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780190231217
eISBN:
9780190609061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190231217.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The author is concerned with evolutionary origins of the human propensity for ethnic conflict, a kind of conflict not present between breeds of dogs or between subspecies in other mammals and birds. ... More


Species, Populations, and Groups in Hominin Evolution

Sarah Elton and Jason Dunn

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The analytical framework of human population genetics has completed a cycle: the lineage-based description of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome diversity, where often populations vanished, to be ... More


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