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Geometric Means and Lognormal Distributions

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Geometric means are often more meaningful than arithmetic means, because they are closer to the central figure (median). When x and y can conceptually take only positive values, their distributions ... More


The Geographical and Size Distribution of Large Landed Properties

Scott Eddie

in Landownership in Eastern Germany Before the Great War: A Quantitative Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198201663
eISBN:
9780191718434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201663.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

Cluster analysis of the ‘land-use profile’ for each Kreis in the land tax cadastre of the early 1860s shows that the land best suited to arable agriculture was concentrated in the east central and ... More


Modelling Multivariate Counts Varying Continuously in Space *

Alexandra M. Schmidt and Marco A. Rodríguez

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

We discuss models for multivariate counts observed at fixed spatial locations of a region of interest. Our approach is based on a continuous mixture of independent Poisson distributions. The mixing ... More


Statistical Power and Sample Size Calculations

Steve Selvin

in Statistical Analysis of Epidemiologic Data

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195172805
eISBN:
9780199865697
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172805.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the power of a statistical test and the closely related issue of sample size. Topics covered include normal distribution, Poisson distribution, sample size, and loss of ... More


Selectivity

Stephen Bazen

in Econometric Methods for Labour Economics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199576791
eISBN:
9780191731136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199576791.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Selection mechanisms and the bias they introduce into econometric estimation constitute one of the principal concerns in empirical labour economics. Economic behaviour is based to a large extent on ... More


Log-normal distribution—leukemia and pesticide exposure

Steve Selvin

in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833444
eISBN:
9780191872280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0040
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

Like the normal distribution, the log-normal distribution’s properties are useful and often revealing. A short description presents an analysis of log-normal data collected to asses cancer risk ... More


Inferential Statistics

Karen A. Randolph and Laura L. Myers

in Basic Statistics in Multivariate Analysis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199764044
eISBN:
9780199332533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764044.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Chapter 3 focuses on inferential statistics, statistical methods that use data observed in a sample to make hypotheses or predictions about data that have not been observed in the larger population. ... More


The Maple Syrup Problem: The Normal-Normal Conjugate

Therese M. Donovan and Ruth M. Mickey

in Bayesian Statistics for Beginners: a step-by-step approach

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198841296
eISBN:
9780191876820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841296.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

In this chapter, Bayesian methods are used to estimate the two parameters that identify a normal distribution, μ‎ and σ‎. Many Bayesian analyses consider alternative parameter values as hypotheses. ... More


Basic statistical methods

Jos Twisk

in Sports Injury Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199561629
eISBN:
9780191722479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Before one can understand and apply the statistical methods that are being used most commonly in sports injury research, an introduction on general statistical principles is needed. This chapter ... More


The Skew Normal Distribution

Russell Cheng

in Non-Standard Parametric Statistical Inference

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198505044
eISBN:
9780191746390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198505044.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter considers the univariate skew-normal distribution, a generalization of the normal that includes the normal as a special case. The most natural parametrization is non-standard. This is ... More


Power Laws and Long Tails

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines distributions known as power laws, which are fractal because they are scale-free. It first considers normal or Gaussian distributions to provide a useful contrast to power-law ... More


Anthropometrics and the Normal in Francis Galton’s Anthropological, Statistical, and Eugenic Research, c. 1870–1910

Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens

in Normality: A Critical Genealogy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226483863
eISBN:
9780226484198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226484198.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

In the final decades of the nineteenth century, the word normal did not yet have a strongly statistical meaning. It did not become fully elaborated as a statistical term until the turn of the ... More


What you don’t know can hurt you: censored and truncated data in ecological research

Gordon A. Fox

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Censored and truncated data are ubiquitous in ecology. Censored data are values for which we know only inequalities (e.g., some data are recorded as 0 because instruments have limited sensitivity, or ... More


Worshiping Math

Gary Smith and Jay Cordes

in The 9 Pitfalls of Data Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198844396
eISBN:
9780191879937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844396.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Data-mining tools, in general, tend to be mathematically sophisticated, yet often make implausible assumptions. For example, analysts often assume a normal distribution and disregard the fat tails ... More


Measurement Error and Our Data

Harold L. Cole

in Monetary and Fiscal Policy through a DSGE Lens

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780190076030
eISBN:
9780190076078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190076030.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter introduces the idea that all data are measured with error. It then uses a standard normally distributed error formulation within a state and measurement context to derive the optimal ... More


One Parameter Chi-squared Analysis

Carey Witkov and Keith Zengel

in Chi-Squared Data Analysis and Model Testing for Beginners

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198847144
eISBN:
9780191882074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198847144.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The chi-squared method for parameter estimation and model testing is developed for the one-parameter case of a line with a slope but no intercept. Curve fitting is motivated, and several methods for ... More


Two–Parameter Chi-squared Analysis

Carey Witkov and Keith Zengel

in Chi-Squared Data Analysis and Model Testing for Beginners

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198847144
eISBN:
9780191882074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198847144.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The chi-squared parameter estimation and model testing methodology is extended to the two-parameter case of a line with a slope and an intercept. Chi-squared is shown to be a paraboloid and is ... More


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