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## Geometric Means and Lognormal Distributions

*Rein Taagepera*

### in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- September 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199534661
- eISBN:
- 9780191715921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0009
- Subject:
- Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Geometric means are often more meaningful than arithmetic means, because they are closer to the central figure (median). When x and y can conceptually take only positive values, their distributions ... More

## The Geographical and Size Distribution of Large Landed Properties

*Scott Eddie*

### in Landownership in Eastern Germany Before the Great War: A Quantitative Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- May 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780198201663
- eISBN:
- 9780191718434
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201663.003.0003
- Subject:
- History, European Modern History

Cluster analysis of the ‘land-use profile’ for each Kreis in the land tax cadastre of the early 1860s shows that the land best suited to arable agriculture was concentrated in the east central and ... More

## Modelling Multivariate Counts Varying Continuously in Space *

*Alexandra M. Schmidt and Marco A. Rodríguez*

### in Bayesian Statistics 9

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- January 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199694587
- eISBN:
- 9780191731921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0020
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

We discuss models for multivariate counts observed at fixed spatial locations of a region of interest. Our approach is based on a continuous mixture of independent Poisson distributions. The mixing ... More

## Statistical Power and Sample Size Calculations

*Steve Selvin*

### in Statistical Analysis of Epidemiologic Data

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195172805
- eISBN:
- 9780199865697
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172805.003.03
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the power of a statistical test and the closely related issue of sample size. Topics covered include normal distribution, Poisson distribution, sample size, and loss of ... More

## Selectivity

*Stephen Bazen*

### in Econometric Methods for Labour Economics

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- January 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199576791
- eISBN:
- 9780191731136
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199576791.003.0005
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Selection mechanisms and the bias they introduce into econometric estimation constitute one of the principal concerns in empirical labour economics. Economic behaviour is based to a large extent on ... More

## Log-normal distribution—leukemia and pesticide exposure

*Steve Selvin*

### in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- May 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198833444
- eISBN:
- 9780191872280
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0040
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

Like the normal distribution, the log-normal distribution’s properties are useful and often revealing. A short description presents an analysis of log-normal data collected to asses cancer risk ... More

## Inferential Statistics

*Karen A. Randolph and Laura L. Myers*

### in Basic Statistics in Multivariate Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- May 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199764044
- eISBN:
- 9780199332533
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764044.003.0003
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Chapter 3 focuses on inferential statistics, statistical methods that use data observed in a sample to make hypotheses or predictions about data that have not been observed in the larger population. ... More

## The Maple Syrup Problem: The Normal-Normal Conjugate

*Therese M. Donovan and Ruth M. Mickey*

### in Bayesian Statistics for Beginners: a step-by-step approach

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- July 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198841296
- eISBN:
- 9780191876820
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198841296.003.0012
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

In this chapter, Bayesian methods are used to estimate the two parameters that identify a normal distribution, μ and σ. Many Bayesian analyses consider alternative parameter values as hypotheses. ... More

## Basic statistical methods

*Jos Twisk*

### in Sports Injury Research

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199561629
- eISBN:
- 9780191722479
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.03
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Before one can understand and apply the statistical methods that are being used most commonly in sports injury research, an introduction on general statistical principles is needed. This chapter ... More

## The Skew Normal Distribution

*Russell Cheng*

### in Non-Standard Parametric Statistical Inference

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- September 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198505044
- eISBN:
- 9780191746390
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198505044.003.0012
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter considers the univariate skew-normal distribution, a generalization of the normal that includes the normal as a special case. The most natural parametrization is non-standard. This is ... More

## Power Laws and Long Tails

*David P. Feldman*

### in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- December 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199566433
- eISBN:
- 9780191774966
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0021
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines distributions known as power laws, which are fractal because they are scale-free. It first considers normal or Gaussian distributions to provide a useful contrast to power-law ... More

## Anthropometrics and the Normal in Francis Galton’s Anthropological, Statistical, and Eugenic Research, c. 1870–1910

*Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens*

### in Normality: A Critical Genealogy

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780226483863
- eISBN:
- 9780226484198
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- University of Chicago Press
- DOI:
- 10.7208/chicago/9780226484198.003.0007
- Subject:
- History, History of Ideas

In the final decades of the nineteenth century, the word normal did not yet have a strongly statistical meaning. It did not become fully elaborated as a statistical term until the turn of the ... More

## What you don’t know can hurt you: censored and truncated data in ecological research

*Gordon A. Fox*

### in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- April 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780199672547
- eISBN:
- 9780191796487
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0006
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Censored and truncated data are ubiquitous in ecology. Censored data are values for which we know only inequalities (e.g., some data are recorded as 0 because instruments have limited sensitivity, or ... More

## Worshiping Math

*Gary Smith and Jay Cordes*

### in The 9 Pitfalls of Data Science

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- September 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198844396
- eISBN:
- 9780191879937
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198844396.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Data-mining tools, in general, tend to be mathematically sophisticated, yet often make implausible assumptions. For example, analysts often assume a normal distribution and disregard the fat tails ... More

## Measurement Error and Our Data

*Harold L. Cole*

### in Monetary and Fiscal Policy through a DSGE Lens

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- April 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780190076030
- eISBN:
- 9780190076078
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190076030.003.0008
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter introduces the idea that all data are measured with error. It then uses a standard normally distributed error formulation within a state and measurement context to derive the optimal ... More

## One Parameter Chi-squared Analysis

*Carey Witkov and Keith Zengel*

### in Chi-Squared Data Analysis and Model Testing for Beginners

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- November 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198847144
- eISBN:
- 9780191882074
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198847144.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The chi-squared method for parameter estimation and model testing is developed for the one-parameter case of a line with a slope but no intercept. Curve fitting is motivated, and several methods for ... More

## Two–Parameter Chi-squared Analysis

*Carey Witkov and Keith Zengel*

### in Chi-Squared Data Analysis and Model Testing for Beginners

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- November 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198847144
- eISBN:
- 9780191882074
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198847144.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The chi-squared parameter estimation and model testing methodology is extended to the two-parameter case of a line with a slope and an intercept. Chi-squared is shown to be a paraboloid and is ... More

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