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Introduction Food, Drugs, and You

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Drugs and foods can affect your brain and therefore your behavior. It is becoming increasingly difficult to define what is a drug (i.e., something that your brain wants or needs in order to function ... More


Dopaminergic Modulation of Cognition in Human Aging

Shu-Chen Li, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Nyberg, Hauke R. Heekeren, and Lars Bäckman

in Imaging the Aging Brain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195328875
eISBN:
9780199864836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Development

This chapter reviews evidence from recent studies applying a wide range of imaging methods and computational approaches to investigate age-related neurochemical changes that affect neuronal signal ... More


Neurochemical Modulation of Prefrontal Cortical Function in Humans and Animals

Amy F.T. Arnsten and Trevor W. Robbins

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which include use of working memory to guide behavioral responses and the contents of attentional focus, the inhibition of inappropriate ... More


Monoamines, GABA, Glutamate, and Aggression

Klaus A. Miczek and Eric W. Fish

in Biology of Aggression

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195168761
eISBN:
9780199865444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168761.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

This chapter summarizes the evidence describing the roles that monoamines—5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)—exert in the mediation of aggressive behavior. Aggression ... More


Floyd E. Bloom

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography: Volume 7

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195396133
eISBN:
9780199918409
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195396133.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This autobiography describes his family upbringing, his undergraduate and graduate medical education, his early clinical training and the beginnings of his neuroscience research career. The details ... More


Mechanisms, Mediators, and Adaptive Consequences of Caregiving

Stephen W. Porges and C. Sue Carter

in Moving Beyond Self-Interest: Perspectives from Evolutionary Biology, Neuroscience, and the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195388107
eISBN:
9780199918386
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388107.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This essay describes neurobiological and neuroendocrine mechanisms that are implicated in human caregiving. Anatomical and biochemical systems that first appeared in the evolutionary transition from ... More


What are amphetamines and how do they work in the brain?

Leslie Iversen

in Speed, Ecstasy, Ritalin: The Science of Amphetamines

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198530909
eISBN:
9780191689802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530909.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the chemistry of amphetamines and their effects on the brain. Amphetamines are easily administered by a variety of routes and they ... More


Commentary on Part II The Inhibited Child “Syndrome”: Thoughts on Its Potential Pathogenesis and Sequelae

George P. Chrousos and Philip W.P. Gold

in Extreme Fear, Shyness, and Social Phobia

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195118872
eISBN:
9780199848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118872.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter describes fear and its neuroendocrine regulation. It specifically highlights the role of elevated cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the regulation of fear responses, ... More


Depression Seen Through an Animal Model: An Expanded Hypothesis of Pathophysiology and Improved Models

Jay M. Weiss, Melissa K. Demetrikopoulos, Paige M. Mccurdy, Charles H. K. West, and Robert W. Bonsall

in Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195133585
eISBN:
9780199847310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133585.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter begins with a description of the animal model for the study of depression which focuses on stress-induced behavioral depression. Based on laboratory tests, etiological similarities ... More


Brain systems and the regulation of memory consolidation

James L. McGaugh, Larry Cahill, Barbara Ferry, and Benno Roozendaal

in Brain, Perception, Memory: Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524823
eISBN:
9780191689246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524823.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter is a review of the brain mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory consolidation. The chapter provides convincing evidence that noradrenergic systems in the basolateral amygdala ... More


Neuropsychopharmacology and Cognition

David Q. Beversdorf

in The Roots of Cognitive Neuroscience: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780195395549
eISBN:
9780199369201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395549.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuropsychology

In Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology, one typically thinks of localization studies involving focal lesions of the brain or functional neuroimaging. One also thinks of the understanding of the ... More


Creativity

Valeria Drago and Glen R. Finney

in The Roots of Cognitive Neuroscience: Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780195395549
eISBN:
9780199369201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395549.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuropsychology

Creativity is a multifaceted concept. It underlies the arts such as painting, sculpting, dance, song, poetry, music, photography, as well as the sciences such as mathematics, physics, cosmology, ... More


Pharmacological Effects on Creativity

David Q. Beversdorf

in Neuroscience of Creativity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019583
eISBN:
9780262314695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019583.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Recent research has begun to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of creativity. However, certain conditions such as stress have a significant impact on creative performance. We review the ... More


Neurochemistry of Performance Monitoring

Markus Ullsperger

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the neurochemistry of performance monitoring and presents an overview of the knowledge gathered in humans using pharmacological challenges and imaging genetics. It describes ... More


Learning, the P3, and the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System

Sander Nieuwenhuis

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The P3 is a prominent positive large-amplitude event-related potential (ERP) component with a typical peak latency between 300 and 400 msec following presentation of stimuli. This chapter discusses ... More


Emotional memory

Mana R Ehlers and Rebecca M Todd

in Genes, brain, and emotions: Interdisciplinary and Translational Perspectives

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198793014
eISBN:
9780191834745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198793014.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter presents an overview of current conceptualizations of the emotional enhancement of explicit and implicit memory. It postulates that these processes depend largely on arousal-mediated ... More


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