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Logic and Artificial Intelligence

Richmond H. Thomason

in The Development of Modern Logic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137316
eISBN:
9780199867912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137316.003.0047
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter presents an overview of the issues that arise when logic is used in helping to understand problems in intelligent reasoning and to guide the design of mechanized reasoning systems. It ... More


Are All Generics Created Equal?

Francis Jeffry Pelletier

in Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195382891
eISBN:
9780199870493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195382891.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter focuses on the differing ways that characterizing generic sentences can be expressed. For instance, we might hear ‘Birds typically fly’ or ‘Usually, birds fly,’ using adverbs. But ... More


The conditional in mental probability logic

Niki Pfeifer and Gernot D. Kleiter

in Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes a probabilistic framework of human reasoning based on probability logic. While there are several approaches to probability logic, the chapter adopts the coherence based ... More


Induction and Consistency

Henry E. Kyburg

in Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147667
eISBN:
9780199785865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147669.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter addresses the question of how a reasoning agent comes to accept conclusions that are based on inductive or uncertain inference. This is an important matter for plausible inference, ... More


Defeasibility, Contributory Conditionals, and Refinement of Legal Systems *

Juliano S.A. Maranhão

in The Logic of Legal Requirements: Essays on Defeasibility

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199661640
eISBN:
9780191745461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661640.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter takes up with Alchourrón's well-known attack against nonmonotonic logics. It surveys Alchourrón's convictions about legal epistemology and argues that they provided the impetus for his ... More


Mixtures and Low Doses: The Complexity of Risk Assessment

Barbara Demeneix

in Losing Our Minds: Effects of Chemical Pollution on the Intellectual Capacity and Mental Health of Future Generations

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199917518
eISBN:
9780190232382
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199917518.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Behavioural Neuroendocrinology

The current EPA Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) inventory lists over 84,000 chemicals manufactured or imported into the United States in quantities above 10 tons. This list does not include ... More


Causal Inference via Constraint Satisfaction

Amos Golan

in Foundations of Info-Metrics: Modeling, Inference, and Imperfect Information

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199349524
eISBN:
9780199349555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199349524.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

In this chapter I introduce a number of ideas connected to causal inference that are inherently connected to info-metrics. In the context of this chapter, causal inference means the causality ... More


Dynamic Foundations for Deontic Logic

Malte Willer

in Deontic Modality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198717928
eISBN:
9780191787393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717928.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Several authors have observed that the tools and techniques developed within the field of nonmonotonic logic provide a fruitful framework for the theoretical study of deontic discourse and reasoning. ... More


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