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Materials:: Old Techniques and New Solutions

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Steel — made from iron in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces, and turned into semifinished products by continuous casting — remained the dominant material of the 20th century. Completely ... More


Structural Chemistry of Group 15 Elements

Wai-Kee Li, Gong-Du Zhou, and Thomas Chung Wai Mak

in Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199216949
eISBN:
9780191711992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216949.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter focuses on nitrogen, including the N2 molecule, all-nitrogen ions, dinitrogen complexes, nitrogen oxides and hydrides, etc. A significant portion of the chapter is devoted to the ... More


What Could Work Better: Cooperation betwen Two Species

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines cooperation between two species and how cooperation among related individuals of one species can also help maintain cooperation between species. It presents some examples of ... More


Influences on Ecosystem Function IV: Nitrogen Biogeochemistry

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ungulate grazing, primarily by elk and bison, accelerates nitrogen cycling within the northern-range system by consumption, digestion, excretion, and subsequent mineralization. Ungulate use does not ... More


Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses proteins, which make up approximately 50% of organic matter and contain about 85% of the organic nitrogen in marine organisms. Peptides and proteins comprise an important ... More


Food and Shelter: How Resources Influence Ant Ecology

Nico Blüthgen and Heike Feldhaar

in Ant Ecology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199544639
eISBN:
9780191720192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544639.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Food and nesting space are the most important resources for ants and contribute strongly to the structure of ant communities. Most ants can be considered omnivores; however, differences in morphology ... More


Supplementing the Soil

Edward Dallam Melillo

in Strangers On Familiar Soil: Rediscovering the Chile-California Connection

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300206623
eISBN:
9780300216486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300206623.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter describes efforts to improve the fertility of California's soils. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, nitrogen depletion in California's soils was a major concern. ... More


Structure and bonding in oxides and oxoacids of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorine

Arne Haaland

in Molecules and Models: The molecular structures of main group element compounds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235353
eISBN:
9780191715594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235353.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the molecular structures of the three known carbon oxides, the three known sulfur oxides, eight nitrogen oxides, two phosphorus oxides, and three chlorine oxides. Bond energies ... More


The sand dune environment

M. Anwar Maun

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198570356
eISBN:
9780191916731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198570356.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The micro-environmental conditions of different soil habitats are influenced by prevailing vegetation, aspect, soil texture, soil colour and other variables that ... More


Biogeochemical Consequences of Ocean Acidification and Feedbacks to the Earth System

Marion Gehlen and Nicolas Gruber

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

By the year 2008, the ocean had taken up approximately 140 Gt carbon corresponding to about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere since the ... More


Specialized Physiological Characteristics of Amphibia

Stanley S. Hillman, Philip C. Withers, Robert C. Drewes, and Stanley D. Hillyard

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198570325
eISBN:
9780191728259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570325.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter delineates the specialized physiological characteristics of amphibians, including anatomy and physiology of physiological processes of amphibians that have served as unique and powerful ... More


Introduction

Richard D. Bardgett and T. Hefin Jones

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides an overview of the four chapters in Section 4. Chapter 4.1 considers how climate change can impact on soils and ecosystem services. Chapter 4.2 illustrates how terrestrial ... More


Nutrients, light, and temperature

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198528722
eISBN:
9780191728211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528722.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses how nutrients, light, and temperature vary within and among peatland types. The chemical and biological processes that govern the circulation and availability of nitrogen are ... More


Organism interactions and soil processes

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter illustrates how the activities of soil biota, especially their trophic interactions, influence the processes of decomposition and nutrient cycling, and examines the significance of this ... More


Soil biological properties and global change

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses how particular global change phenomena impact on soil biota and their activities, and how these effects feedback to nutrient dynamics and the productivity and structure of ... More


Nitrogen Cycling

Melany C. Fisk and Paul D. Brooks

in Structure and Function of an Alpine Ecosystem: Niwot Ridge, Colorado

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117288
eISBN:
9780197561171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117288.003.0019
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

In this chapter, we discuss the current understanding of internal N cycling, or the flow of N through plant and soil components, in the Niwot Ridge alpine ... More


Why are the Tropics so Diverse?

Thomas N. Sherratt and David M. Wilkinson

in Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199548606
eISBN:
9780191917769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199548606.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Our opening quotation describes Charles Darwin’s first experience of tropical forest on 29 February 1832. He had been looking forward to this moment for several years. ... More


The Beaver Meadow on North St. Vrain Creek

Ellen Wohl

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190943523
eISBN:
9780197559949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190943523.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

There is a place, about a mile long by a thousand feet wide, that lies in the heart of the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Here at the eastern margin of Rocky ... More


June: The Thin Green Line

Ellen Wohl

in Saving the Dammed: Why We Need Beaver-Modified Ecosystems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190943523
eISBN:
9780197559949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190943523.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

June, when the snows come hurrying from the hills and the bridges often go, in the words of Emily Dickinson. In the beaver meadow, the snows are indeed hurrying from ... More


September: Alternate Realities

Ellen Wohl

in Saving the Dammed: Why We Need Beaver-Modified Ecosystems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190943523
eISBN:
9780197559949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190943523.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The first week of September mostly feels like summer. The air on the dry terrace bordering the beaver meadow is richly scented with pine. Purple aster, blue harebells, ... More


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