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Materials:: Old Techniques and New Solutions

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Steel — made from iron in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces, and turned into semifinished products by continuous casting — remained the dominant material of the 20th century. Completely ... More


Structural Chemistry of Group 15 Elements

Wai-Kee Li, Gong-Du Zhou, and Thomas Chung Wai Mak

in Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199216949
eISBN:
9780191711992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216949.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter focuses on nitrogen, including the N2 molecule, all-nitrogen ions, dinitrogen complexes, nitrogen oxides and hydrides, etc. A significant portion of the chapter is devoted to the ... More


What Could Work Better: Cooperation betwen Two Species

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines cooperation between two species and how cooperation among related individuals of one species can also help maintain cooperation between species. It presents some examples of ... More


Influences on Ecosystem Function IV: Nitrogen Biogeochemistry

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ungulate grazing, primarily by elk and bison, accelerates nitrogen cycling within the northern-range system by consumption, digestion, excretion, and subsequent mineralization. Ungulate use does not ... More


Proteins: Amino Acids and Amines

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses proteins, which make up approximately 50% of organic matter and contain about 85% of the organic nitrogen in marine organisms. Peptides and proteins comprise an important ... More


Food and Shelter: How Resources Influence Ant Ecology

Nico Blüthgen and Heike Feldhaar

in Ant Ecology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199544639
eISBN:
9780191720192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544639.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Food and nesting space are the most important resources for ants and contribute strongly to the structure of ant communities. Most ants can be considered omnivores; however, differences in morphology ... More


Supplementing the Soil

Edward Dallam Melillo

in Strangers On Familiar Soil: Rediscovering the Chile-California Connection

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300206623
eISBN:
9780300216486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300206623.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter describes efforts to improve the fertility of California's soils. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, nitrogen depletion in California's soils was a major concern. ... More


Structure and bonding in oxides and oxoacids of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorine

Arne Haaland

in Molecules and Models: The molecular structures of main group element compounds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235353
eISBN:
9780191715594
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235353.003.0020
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the molecular structures of the three known carbon oxides, the three known sulfur oxides, eight nitrogen oxides, two phosphorus oxides, and three chlorine oxides. Bond energies ... More


Specialized Physiological Characteristics of Amphibia

Stanley S. Hillman, Philip C. Withers, Robert C. Drewes, and Stanley D. Hillyard

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198570325
eISBN:
9780191728259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570325.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter delineates the specialized physiological characteristics of amphibians, including anatomy and physiology of physiological processes of amphibians that have served as unique and powerful ... More


Introduction

Richard D. Bardgett and T. Hefin Jones

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides an overview of the four chapters in Section 4. Chapter 4.1 considers how climate change can impact on soils and ecosystem services. Chapter 4.2 illustrates how terrestrial ... More


Nutrients, light, and temperature

Håkan Rydin and John K. Jeglum

in The Biology of Peatlands

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198528722
eISBN:
9780191728211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528722.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses how nutrients, light, and temperature vary within and among peatland types. The chemical and biological processes that govern the circulation and availability of nitrogen are ... More


Organism interactions and soil processes

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter illustrates how the activities of soil biota, especially their trophic interactions, influence the processes of decomposition and nutrient cycling, and examines the significance of this ... More


Soil biological properties and global change

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses how particular global change phenomena impact on soil biota and their activities, and how these effects feedback to nutrient dynamics and the productivity and structure of ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


The Big Solutions: Climate Change, Resource Cycles, and Diet

David A. Cleveland

in Balancing on a Planet: The Future of Food and Agriculture

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520277410
eISBN:
9780520957084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520277410.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

Agrifood systems divert resources from biogeochemical cycles (e.g., carbon and nitrogen cycles) to produce food, with major negative effects, including global warming. Global warming is changing ... More


The Impact of Nitrogen Enrichment on Ecosystems and Their Services

Peter Manning

in Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575923
eISBN:
9780191774843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575923.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Nitrogen inputs into terrestrial ecosystems have more than doubled since pre-industrial times, causing significant disruption of aboveground and belowground communities, and the ecosystem services ... More


Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Han Dolman

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This book describes the interaction of the main biogeochemical cycles of the Earth and the physics of climate. It takes the perspective of Earth as an integrated system and provides examples of both ... More


Tipping the Balance in the Restoration of Native Plants: Experimental Approaches to Changing the Exotic:Native Ratio in California Grassland

Jeffrey D. Corbin, Carla M. D’Antonio, and Susan J. Bainbridge

in Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520240247
eISBN:
9780520930636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520240247.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter evaluates the efficiency of experimental techniques in reducing invasive plant species in California grassland ecosystems. It discusses native plant restoration approaches, focusing on ... More


Resource Limitation

W. stanley Harpole, Leah Goldstein, and Rebecca J. Aicher

in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252202
eISBN:
9780520933972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252202.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The productivity of California grasslands is limited by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, or water at various sites, and studies finding limitation by multiple resources are common. This ... More


Responses to Changing Atmosphere and Climate

Jeffrey S. Dukes and M. rebecca Shaw

in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252202
eISBN:
9780520933972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252202.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter explores how the grasslands respond to human-caused changes—increase in CO2 concentration, added nitrogen inputs, and changes in climate—and also reviews the limited evidence for how ... More


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