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The Nucleus of the Solitary Tract: Processing Information from Viscerosensory Afferents

Michael C. Andresen and Julian F. R. Paton

in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195306637
eISBN:
9780199894130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306637.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the first location within the central nervous system for the integration and modulation of cardiovascular afferent as well as other viscerosensory input. ... More


Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Roles of the Paraventricular Nucleus

Javier E. Stern

in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195306637
eISBN:
9780199894130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306637.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Maintenance of bodily homeostasis by the central nervous system involves complex interactions between the neuroendocrine and the autonomic nervous systems. Concerted actions between these systems ... More


Second Messenger Systems

Sean Murphy and Brian R. Pearce

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on recent developments in (predominantly astro-) glial second messenger pathways, particularly those involved in intracellular Ca2+ signaling. It illustrates signaling cascades ... More


The Nitric Oxide Connection

James H. Austin

in Living Zen Remindfully: Retraining Subconscious Awareness

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035088
eISBN:
9780262336475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035088.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter is an update on recent research involving the gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a potential candidate for some of the delayed histological changes that occur in ... More


Redox chemistry: the essentials

Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge

in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717478
eISBN:
9780191802133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter explains the basic chemistry of free radicals and other reactive species (RS), beginning with the concepts of thermodynamically possible reactions, reaction rate, rate constants, ... More


Endothelium-dependent vasodilator mechanisms

T.M. Cocks

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The endothelium not only provides an important permeability barrier between the blood and the surrounding tissues, particularly in the brain, but it also presents a non-thrombogenic surface to the ... More


The Triumph of Industrial Chemistry: The Industrial Response to Sir William Crookes

G. J. Leigh

in The World's Greatest Fix: A History of Nitrogen and Agriculture

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165821
eISBN:
9780197562130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165821.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

In 1905, Sir William Crookes published a book entitled The Wheat Problem in which he reiterated what he had said in his British Association address of 1898. The content and tone are familiar: “The ... More


A study in scarlet: The role of hemoglobin in blood gas transport

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 2 provides an overview of hemoglobin function and its physiological role in respiratory gas transport. Much of the chapter is devoted to explaining the physiological significance of ... More


Metabolic damage

James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett

in Brain Damage, Brain Repair

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523376
eISBN:
9780191724534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Many conditions can cause metabolic damage to the CNS, and they do so through a variety of mechanisms. Stroke, for instance, causes anoxic damage to a region of the brain, the actual cell death being ... More


Vessel wall injury and growth: pharmacological considerations in atherosclerosis and collateral artery function

Norman K. Hollenberg

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Arteries relax in response to some vasodilators only if the endothelium is present. The obligatory role for vasodilatation of a diffusible factor from endothelium termed ‘EDRF’ for ... More


Pharmacology of human isolated large and small coronary arteries

J. A. Angus and T. M. Cocks

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter first reviews current data on the in vitro findings of the effect of a range of vasoactive substances on human large coronary arteries. Particular attention is given to spontaneous or ... More


Neurocognitive Outcomes in Sickle Cell Disease

F. Daniel Armstrong and Steven Pavlakis

in Cognitive and Behavioral Abnormalities of Pediatric Diseases

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195342680
eISBN:
9780197562598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195342680.003.0033
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a range of serious complications, including painful episodes, acute chest syndrome, stroke, splenic sequestration, overwhelming bacterial sepsis, and a ... More


Nitrogen Fixation, Agriculture, and the Environment

G. J. Leigh

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165821
eISBN:
9780197562130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165821.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

This book tells the story of how humans have used their ingenuity throughout history to maintain soil fertility and to avoid famine through productive agriculture. The struggle to provide ... More


Irritating Atmospheres: Atmospheric Photochemistry

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0030
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The problem of photochemically generated smog begins inside internal combustion engines, where at the high temperatures within the combustion cylinders and the hot exhaust manifold nitrogen ... More


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