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Suboxic respiration in the oceanic water column

Louis A. Codispoti, Tadashi Yoshinari, and Allan H. Devol

in Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527084
eISBN:
9780191713347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527084.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Upon oxygen depletion, a suite of alternate oxidants supports microbial respiration and inhibits the onset of sulfate (SO4 2) reduction. Waters in this intermediate state are ... More


Supplementing the Soil

Edward Dallam Melillo

in Strangers On Familiar Soil: Rediscovering the Chile-California Connection

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300206623
eISBN:
9780300216486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300206623.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter describes efforts to improve the fertility of California's soils. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, nitrogen depletion in California's soils was a major concern. ... More


Matter Falling Out: Precipitation

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

I shall now introduce you to one of the simplest kinds of chemical reaction: precipitation, the falling out from solution of newly formed solid, powdery matter when two solutions are mixed ... More


Nitrate and Aquifer Protection

William M. Alley and Rosemarie Alley

in High and Dry: Meeting the Challenges of the World's Growing Dependence on Groundwater

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780300220384
eISBN:
9780300227550
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300220384.003.0015
Subject:
Environmental Science, Nature

Nitrate is the most common chemical contaminant in groundwater, affecting both human health and ecosystems. This chapter discusses how nitrate in groundwater has affected the health of the Chesapeake ... More


Irritating Atmospheres: Atmospheric Photochemistry

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0030
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The problem of photochemically generated smog begins inside internal combustion engines, where at the high temperatures within the combustion cylinders and the hot exhaust manifold nitrogen ... More


Earth

Chris Otter

in Diet for a Large Planet: Industrial Britain, Food Systems, and World Ecology

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226697109
eISBN:
9780226705965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226705965.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This penultimate chapter addresses the ecological consequences of the British "large planet" diet. The first part of the chapter examines the rise of mined, imported, or manufactured fertilizers: ... More


Photodecomposition of Light-Absorbing Oxygenates and Its Influence on Ozone Levels in the Atmosphere

Jack G. Calvert, John J. Orlando, William R. Stockwell, and Timothy J. Wallington

in The Mechanisms of Reactions Influencing Atmospheric Ozone

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190233020
eISBN:
9780197559529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190233020.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

Photochemistry provides the important driving force that initiates chemistry in the atmosphere. We saw in Chapter II how light absorbed by ozone generates the ... More


Rate Coefficients and Mechanisms for the Atmospheric Oxidation of the N-Atom-Containing Oxygenates

Jack Calvert, Abdelwahid Mellouki, John Orlando, Michael Pilling, and Timothy Wallington

in Mechanisms of Atmospheric Oxidation of the Oxygenates

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199767076
eISBN:
9780197563120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199767076.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

The many different nitrogen-containing oxygenated volatile organic compounds that are present in the troposphere play important roles in the chemistry of our atmosphere. They can be emitted ... More


Demography, Dispersal, and Connectivity of Populations

David R. Schiel and Michael S. Foster

in The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780520278868
eISBN:
9780520961098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520278868.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the abiotic environment of giant kelp. Macrocystis requires a hard substratum for settlement and attachment, water temperatures between about 4°C and 20°C, sea-bottom light ... More


Giving the Land a Kick

David L. Kirchman

in Dead Zones: The Loss of Oxygen from Rivers, Lakes, Seas, and the Ocean

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780197520376
eISBN:
9780197520406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197520376.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

When it became clear that nutrients cause the rise of dead zones, scientists next examined the possible sources of the nutrients. This chapter argues the biggest source today is agriculture. The ... More


June: The Thin Green Line

Ellen Wohl

in Saving the Dammed: Why We Need Beaver-Modified Ecosystems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190943523
eISBN:
9780197559949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190943523.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

June, when the snows come hurrying from the hills and the bridges often go, in the words of Emily Dickinson. In the beaver meadow, the snows are indeed hurrying from the surrounding hills. Every ... More


Dissemination of Gibbs’ work

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0038
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Gibbs’ work was disseminated along two different paths. Path 1: Gibbs -> Maxwell -> Pupin -> Helmholtz -> van’t Hoff -> community. Path 2: Gibbs -> van der Waals -> Roozeboom -> community. This ... More


Farming Facts

Lisa Kemmerer

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199391844
eISBN:
9780197562994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199391844.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Sustainability

Cheap meat, dairy, and eggs are an illusion—we pay for each with depleted forests, polluted freshwater, soil degradation, and climate change. Diet is the most critical decision we make with regard ... More


Water Contaminants

Kenneth P. Cantor, Craig M. Steinmaus, Mary H. Ward, and Laura E. Beane Freeman

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Humans have long recognized the hazards of microbial contamination of drinking water. Only since the 1960s, however, have epidemiologic studies systematically examined whether naturally occurring ... More


Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Marine Source of Atmospherically Active Trace Gases

Frances Hopkins and Philip Nightingale

in Ocean Acidification

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199591091
eISBN:
9780191918001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199591091.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

A wide range of trace gases, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and organohalogens, are formed in the surface oceans via biological and/or photochemical processes. Consequently, these gases become ... More


Watershed Hydrology and Chemistry in the Alaskan Boreal Forest: The Central Role of Permafrost

Larry D. Hinzman and Kevin C. Petrone

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0023
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Hydrological processes exert strong control over biological and climatic processes in every ecosystem. They are particularly important in the boreal zone, where the average annual temperatures of ... More


Good News: Research and Medicinal Chemists Making a Difference

Mark A. Griep and Marjorie L. Mikasen

in ReAction!: Chemistry in the Movies

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195326925
eISBN:
9780197562536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195326925.003.0013
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

Stories of people doing their jobs well, treating each other with respect, and trying to make the world a better place are all examples of “good news.” Such stories don’t generate many website ... More


Two Brilliant Careers

Lars Öhrström

in The Last Alchemist in Paris: And other curious tales from chemistry

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199661091
eISBN:
9780191916885
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199661091.003.0017
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

At the time of publishing, it is exactly 50 years since Bob Dylan answered a number of enigmatic questions with the ambiguous line ‘the answer is blowin’ in the wind’ on the A-side of the record ... More


Bill Morrison

Scott MacDonald

in The Sublimity of Document: Cinema as Diorama

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780190052126
eISBN:
9780190052164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190052126.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, Film, Media, and Cultural Studies

This is the first extensive interview with the “Orpheus of nitrate,” Bill Morrison, whose forte is finding interesting imagery, often imagery with obvious film decay, in celluloid film archives, then ... More


The Triumph of Industrial Chemistry: The Industrial Response to Sir William Crookes

G. J. Leigh

in The World's Greatest Fix: A History of Nitrogen and Agriculture

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165821
eISBN:
9780197562130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165821.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

In 1905, Sir William Crookes published a book entitled The Wheat Problem in which he reiterated what he had said in his British Association address of 1898. The content and tone are familiar: “The ... More


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