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Negative Selection and the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection is not the only evolutionary “force” that can alter frequencies of genetic variants; random genetic drift (a sampling process) persistently changes the gene pool of populations, ... More


Detecting Positive Selection

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Positive natural selection, though rare in comparison with negative selection, is the main evolutionary force responsible for adaptive evolutionary change. Using the neutral theory to generate null ... More


Stephen Hubbell and the Paramount Power of Randomness

Philippe Huneman

in Dreamers, Visionaries, and Revolutionaries in the Life Sciences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226569871
eISBN:
9780226570075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226570075.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Stephen Hubbell ‘s Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (2001) is a milestone in theoretical ecology. In this book, Hubbell argued for the provocative, many thought - fantastic - ... More


Analyzing A Priori Knowledge

Albert Casullo

in Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification: Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199777860
eISBN:
9780199933525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199777860.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

There are four approaches to analyzing the concept of a priori knowledge. The primary target of the reductive approach is the concept of a priori justification. The primary target of the nonreductive ... More


Neutral theories of molecular evolution

Asher D. Cutter

in A Primer of Molecular Population Genetics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198838944
eISBN:
9780191874826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838944.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 4, “Neutral theories of molecular evolution,” outlines the logic and predictions of the neutral theory of molecular evolution and its derivatives as a simple conceptual framework for ... More


Metacommunities

Gary G. Mittelbach and Brian J. McGill

in Community Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198835851
eISBN:
9780191873379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198835851.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Just as the dispersal of individuals may link the dynamics of populations in space, the dispersal of species among communities may link local communities into a metacommunity. Four different ... More


A Theory of Global Biodiversity (MPB-60)

Boris Worm and Derek P. Tittensor

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691154831
eISBN:
9781400890231
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154831.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The number of species found at a given point on the planet varies by orders of magnitude, yet large-scale gradients in biodiversity appear to follow some very general patterns. Little mechanistic ... More


Neutral and adaptive protein evolution

Ziheng Yang

in Molecular Evolution: A Statistical Approach

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199602605
eISBN:
9780191782251
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602605.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter introduces the major theories of molecular evolution, such as the neutral theory, the nearly neutral theory, and the selectionist theory. It discusses the major neutrality tests designed ... More


Inferring evolutionary processes from DNA sequence data

Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

in Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts, Analysis, and Practice

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830917
eISBN:
9780191868993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830917.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

The allelic evolutionary genetic models explored so far are applicable to genetic markers. However, DNA sequences harbor a lot of information about the evolutionary past that would be missed if ... More


Is It Worse if More Die: Agent Relative or Non‐Relative Views?

F. M. Kamm

in Morality, Mortality Volume I: Death and Whom to Save From It

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195119114
eISBN:
9780199872244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195119118.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Considers arguments for the following radical claim: the fact that we could save a greater number of lives is not a reason to save some people rather than others when we cannot save everyone. Against ... More


Neutral Evolution in One- and Two-Locus Systems

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter reviews the population-genetic theory of neutral alleles in finite populations, examining the probabilities and times to loss or fixation, summary statistics for molecular variation, ... More


A contemporary reflection on feminist criminology: whose side are we on?

Victoria Lavis and Tammi Walker

in Values in criminology and community justice

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9781447300359
eISBN:
9781447311706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447300359.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter critically considers the ways in which the changing values of feminism have impacted upon its contribution to criminology. Becker’s question about the taking of sides in research is ... More


How does species richness accumulate over time?

Timothy G. Barraclough

in The Evolutionary Biology of Species

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198749745
eISBN:
9780191814020
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198749745.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Species are units for understanding the evolution of diversity over large geographical scales and long timescales. This chapter investigates the processes causing proliferation and demise of species ... More


An Entangled Bank: Evolutionary Relationships and Ecological Patterns

Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

in Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157689
eISBN:
9781400881192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter reviews the history of the use of phylogenetics in ecology, beginning with a discussion of early attempts to classify the diversity of life and the development of evolutionary theory. In ... More


Stochasticity due to finiteness

Liz Pásztor, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Czárán, and Géza Meszéna

in Theory-Based Ecology: A Darwinian approach

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199577859
eISBN:
9780191823787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577859.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The inherent stochastic nature of individual life histories implies that finite populations always carry a risk of going extinct, even if their long-term growth potential is positive. The ... More


The ecology of plants: from seed to seed

Richard T. Corlett

in The Ecology of Tropical East Asia

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198817017
eISBN:
9780191858703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817017.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter deals with the ecology of Tropical East Asia from a plant perspective. The life cycle of forest trees is covered in detail, including their vegetative and reproductive phenology, ... More


A Primer of Molecular Population Genetics

Asher D. Cutter

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198838944
eISBN:
9780191874826
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838944.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The study of molecular population genetics seeks to understand the micro-evolutionary principles underlying DNA sequence variation and change. It addresses such questions as: Why do individuals ... More


The ecology of plants: from seed to seed

Richard T. Corlett

in The Ecology of Tropical East Asia

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199681341
eISBN:
9780191789175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681341.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter deals with the ecology of Tropical East Asia from a plant perspective. The life cycle of forest trees is covered in detail, including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, and the ... More


Biogeography and habitats of carnivorous plants

J. Stephen Brewer and Jan Schlauer

in Carnivorous Plants: Physiology, ecology, and evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198779841
eISBN:
9780191825873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779841.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

Understanding the processes involved in generating distribution patterns of carnivorous plants requires investigation at multiple scales. Carnivorous plants typically occur in warm or hot and humid ... More


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