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Signaling Molecules: The First Neurotransmitters in the Brain

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter details early studies on signal molecules between nerve cells that mediate behavior. The key signal molecules for these functions are neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, internal second ... More


Nervous system

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Nervous systems are directional signalling systems. Several components of nervous systems are present in non-metazoan organisms, and sponges are able to use electrical signals without having a ... More


A Neurological Framework

Mary Coleman

in The Neurology of Autism

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182224
eISBN:
9780199786701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182224.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter examines the components of the impaired neural networks that might underlie the presentation of autistic symptoms. Topics covered include the neural network models of autism, central ... More


An Applied Context for Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry

Alan F. Schatzberg

in Integrative Neuroscience and Personalized Medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195393804
eISBN:
9780199863495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393804.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter reviews a number of early hypotheses about the role of neurotransmitters in depression. These hypotheses had some potential, but never had the impact one might have hoped for in the ... More


Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons

David Jordan

in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195306637
eISBN:
9780199894130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306637.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, which have cell bodies in the brainstem and spinal cord, are the source of all parasympathetic outflow. Consequently, these neurons are important sites for ... More


Molecular biology of neurotransmitter release

Julie Staple and Stefan Catsicas

in Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509981
eISBN:
9780191723810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509981.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter discusses modern concepts in neurotransmitter release, and learning and synapses. Fusion and re-uptake of specialized membrane is involved in a number of processes which affect neuronal ... More


Molecular biology of postsynaptic structures

Flaminio Cattabeni, Fabrizio Gardoni, and Monica Di Luca

in Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509981
eISBN:
9780191723810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509981.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Excitatory glutamatergic synapses feature a prominent thickening at the cytoplasmic surface of ... More


Signal reception: Ligand-gated ion channel receptors

R. Wayne Davies and Thora A. Glencorse

in Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509981
eISBN:
9780191723810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509981.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Fast synaptic transmission is crucial for real-time functioning of the brain. All the receptor molecules that mediate fast transmission events are also ligand-gated ion channels, i.e., they are ion ... More


Solomon H. Snyder

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Solomon H. Snyder. Snyder identified receptors for opiates and neurotransmitters and elucidated mechanisms of drug action. He characterized messenger systems ... More


Membrane Properties and Neurotransmitter Actions

DAVID A. McCORMICK

in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195159561
eISBN:
9780199864447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter provides a general overview of neuronal currents known to exist in brain cells, how they may be modulated by neurotransmitters, and how the interplay between the two can result in ... More


Quantal Release of Transmitter: Not Only from Neurons but from Aastrocytes as Well?

Andrea Volterra and Jacopo Meldolesi

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on astrocytes. In the last fifteen years, the status of astrocytes has changed profoundly from a cell scaffold and metabolic-trophic reservoir offering neurons a necessary, yet ... More


Leslie L. Iversen

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Leslie L. Iversen. Iversen has been at the forefront of research on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and understanding the mode of action of CNS drugs. He ... More


Neurobehavioral Consequences of Neurosurgical Treatments and Focal Lesions of Frontal–Subcortical Circuits

Jean A. Saint-Cyr, Yuri L. Bronstein, and Jeffrey L. Cummings

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter describes the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters of frontal-subcortical circuits and the clinical behavioral syndromes associated with the specific focal lesions within the circuits. It ... More


Neocortex

RODNEY DOUGLAS, HENRY MARKRAM, and KEVAN MARTIN

in The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195159561
eISBN:
9780199864447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159561.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter focuses on the structure and function of the microcircuits of the neocortex and their components. Topics covered include embryonic development, neuronal elements, synaptic connections, ... More


Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Stanley Finger

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This volume presents a series of vibrant profiles that trace the evolution of our knowledge about the brain. Beginning almost 5,000 years ago, with the ancient Egyptian study of “the marrow of the ... More


Scientific Understanding of Eating Disorder s

Simona Giordano

in Understanding Eating Disorders: Conceptual and Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199269747
eISBN:
9780191603129
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269742.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores the organic basis of eating disorders, and discusses whether eating disorders are a form of addiction. Gene variations seem to be involved in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. ... More


Cell Proliferation

Bernhard Suter and Pradeep G. Bhide

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Cell proliferation is the earliest step in the protracted process of mammalian brain development. Various genetic and environmental factors modulate the pace of cell proliferation and the number and ... More


Overview and Perspective

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

L-Glutamate (Glu) is the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and is responsible for mediating the majority of its excitatory signaling. From the start, ... More


Otto Loewi and Henry Dale: The Discovery of Neurotransmitters

Stanley Finger

in Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

In the opening decades of the 20th century, there would be new ways of thinking about how neurons communicate with each other and how they stimulate muscles. The earlier idea of a continuous, ... More


The salicylate model of tinnitus

Jos J. Eggermont

in The Neuroscience of Tinnitus

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199605606
eISBN:
9780191741555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199605606.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Development

Salicylate induced tinnitus, either following a single high dose or following repeated administration of low dose. Salicylate interacts with the auditory system both in the cochlea and in the central ... More


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