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Introduction Food, Drugs, and You

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Drugs and foods can affect your brain and therefore your behavior. It is becoming increasingly difficult to define what is a drug (i.e., something that your brain wants or needs in order to function ... More


Modulation of axonal excitability by neurotransmitter receptors

JEFFERY D. KOCSIS and KAORU SAKATANI

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter describes axonal regions in the mammalian nervous system that have well-defined neurotransmitter receptors and discusses their possible functional significance. It focuses on the axonal ... More


Astrocyte Neurotransmitter Uptake

Raymond A. Swanson

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0027
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The action of neurotransmitters can be terminated by cleavage, diffusion, binding, or cellular uptake. In some cases, uptake is accomplished by glial cells localized at or near the synapse. Glial ... More


Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Michael W. Miller (ed.)

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This is the first book about both normal development of the nervous system and how early exposure to alcohol and nicotine interferes with this development. The developing nervous system is highly ... More


The Role of Neurotransmitters in Human Behavior

William R. Clark and Michael Grunstein

in Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178005
eISBN:
9780199893331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178005.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Everything known about human behavior suggests it is regulated entirely by the human brain. Brain cells communicate with one another, and with other cells in the body, through small molecules called ... More


The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Alain Berthoz, Werner Graf, and P. P. Vidal (eds)

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The head carries most of the sensory systems that enable us to function effectively in our three-dimensional habitat. Without adequate head movement control, efficient spatial orientation and motor ... More


Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in dendrites

R. Angus Silver and Mark Farrant

in Dendrites

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566564
eISBN:
9780191724206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566564.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter discusses what has been learned from various approaches for investigating the functional properties of synapses. It focuses on synapses that use glutamate or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ... More


Overview

Heather Ashton

in Brain Function and Psychotropic Drugs

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192622426
eISBN:
9780191724749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622426.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter presents basic information related to functional systems of the brain. It describes the patterns of neural activity and the multiple neurotransmitter system. Disorders of the functional ... More


The pruritus of cholestasis and the opioid neurotransmitter system

E. Anthony Jones and Nora V. Bergasa

in Pruritus in Advanced Disease

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198525103
eISBN:
9780191730238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525103.003.0005
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter discusses pruritus, which is a symptom of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Cholestasis is defined as a syndrome that arises as a consequence of impaired bile secretion and/or flow, ... More


Synthesis, Storage, Transport, and Metabolic Degradation of Neurotransmitters

Joseph D. Robinson

in Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission: Bridging the Gaps (1890-1990)

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195137613
eISBN:
9780199848164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137613.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

With the acceptance of chemical neurotransmission came the recognition that synaptic transmission required a number of discrete processes: synthesis of the neurotransmitter, its storage, release, and ... More


Introduction to Information Transfer in the Nervous System

Thomas Boraud

in How the Brain Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824367
eISBN:
9780191863202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824367.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the modalities of information transfer in the nervous system. The nervous system is organised around specialised cells called neurons, which work as integration units that ... More


The inside story: subcellular mechanisms of neuromodulation

Elizabeth A. Jonas and Leonard K. Kaczmarek

in Beyond Neurotransmission: Neuromodulation and its Importance for Information Processing

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524243
eISBN:
9780191724435
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524243.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The processes within a neuron that are subject to modulation include changes in amplitude or kinetics of the ion channels, the insertion or removal of ion channel proteins from the membrane, changes ... More


Antidepressant efficacy of 5-HT1A partial agonist drugs

Donald S. Robinson

in 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Psychiatry: A Spectrum of Ideas

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192620118
eISBN:
9780191724725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192620118.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Buspirone's initial clinical development involved treatment of chronic anxiety in patients generally corresponding to the DSM-III. Dysfunction of central serotonergic neuronal systems is implicated ... More


Molecular mechanisms of neuronal maturation: a model for synaptic plasticity

J. A. P. Rostas

in Neural and Behavioural Plasticity: The Use of the Domestic Chick as a Model

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198521846
eISBN:
9780191724640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521846.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The plasticity of the adult nervous system allows it to learn new things and remember them, to adapt to change and to recover from injury. This chapter describes a developmental approach to tackle ... More


Imprinting and recognition memory; a review of neural mechanisms

G. Horn

in Neural and Behavioural Plasticity: The Use of the Domestic Chick as a Model

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198521846
eISBN:
9780191724640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521846.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Animals acquire information about the world through the process of learning, and store that information as memory. Central as the storage process is to adaptive behaviour, progress in understanding ... More


Biochemical plasticity

James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett

in Brain Damage, Brain Repair

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523376
eISBN:
9780191724534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Many events can alter the neurotransmitter phenotype of central nervous system (CNS) neurones. For instance, most neurones down-regulate their neurotransmitters and the enzymes that make them after ... More


Bowels and Constipation

J. Eric Ahlskog

in Dementia with Lewy Body and Parkinson's Disease Patients: Patient, Family, and Clinician Working Together for Better Outcomes

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199977567
eISBN:
9780197563342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199977567.003.0024
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Neurology

Constipation is common among older adults, in general. However, it is very common among people with Lewy body disorders, and the reason is dysautonomia. Lewy body disorders tend to impair control ... More


Neuroscience Basics

Annabelle M. Belcher and Adina L. Roskies

in A Primer on Criminal Law and Neuroscience: A contribution of the Law and Neuroscience Project, supported by the MacArthur Foundation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199859177
eISBN:
9780199332694
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199859177.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the basics of brain anatomy and function. We begin with individual neurons and principles of neural signaling, and then move on to gross brain structure to help orient the ... More


Learning Mechanisms in Affective Disorders

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Affective disorders are described with respect to a model of positive and negative affect, which suggests that clinical depression may result both from an impairment of reward anticipation and ... More


An impairment in brain function

Mark Selikowitz

in ADHD: The Facts

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198867371
eISBN:
9780191904127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198867371.003.0010
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Clinical Medicine

ADHD is usually due to a depletion of certain chemical messengers in the front part of the brain. The major cause of this depletion relates to a number of defective genes. ADHD shares some of its ... More


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