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Why bother about motoneurones?

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This brief chapter provides a general introduction for the rest of the book. Motoneurones are defined and the general layout of the neuromuscular system is described. Motoneurones offer great ... More


Development of the visual system

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the general growth of the visual system and, in particular, the pre- and post-natal growth of the binocular system. The discussions cover subcortical development; the development ... More


Pharmacology

B S K Kamath and Sarah Turle

in MCQs for the Primary FRCA

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199575770
eISBN:
9780191917899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199575770.003.0009
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine


Cotransmission

G. Burnstock and V. Ralevic

in The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

For many years researchers' understanding of neurotransmission has been dominated by the concept that one neurone releases only a single transmitter, known as Dale's principle. This idea arose from a ... More


Output functions of the motor cortex

Robert Porter and Roger Lemon

in Corticospinal Function and Voluntary Movement

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523758
eISBN:
9780191724404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523758.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter intends to describe the general observations that have been made on neurones in the precentral motor area of the cerebral cortex and then to examines the specific relationships which ... More


Inputs from peripheral receptors to motor cortex neurons

Robert Porter and Roger Lemon

in Corticospinal Function and Voluntary Movement

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523758
eISBN:
9780191724404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523758.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Recent understanding of the nature of the connections between different brain regions provided by more reliable neuroanatomical methods, and of the functional co-operation between many regions, ... More


Death and survival in the nervous system

James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett

in Brain Damage, Brain Repair

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523376
eISBN:
9780191724534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

It is only in recent years that we have come to realise how important is the part played by cell death in the development, homeostasis, and injury responses of the nervous system. During development ... More


The NMDA receptor concept: origins and development

J. C. WATKINS

in The NMDA Receptor

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192625021
eISBN:
9780191724701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192625021.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The progress of research in the excitatory amino acid (EAA) field over the last forty years is well documented. The field had its origin in the discovery by Hayashi (1954) of the convulsive effects ... More


Drugs and memory

Heather Ashton

in Brain Function and Psychotropic Drugs

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192622426
eISBN:
9780191724749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622426.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Increasing interest has focused recently on the possibility of pharmacological treatment for memory disorders. Drugs, of course, cannot be expected to replace degenerated neurones, but they might ... More


Spotlight on the neurones (I): cell types, local connectivity, microcircuits, and distribution of markers

Floris G. Wouterlood

in The Parahippocampal Region: Organization and Role in Cognitive Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509172
eISBN:
9780191724626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509172.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Several levels of understanding can be distinguished in understanding biological structures. The first of these levels deals with the gross macroscopic anatomy, the second with the cytology and ... More


Spotlight on the neurones (II): electrophysiology of the neurones in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and neuromodulatory changes in firing patterns

Angel A. Alonso

in The Parahippocampal Region: Organization and Role in Cognitive Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509172
eISBN:
9780191724626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509172.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge with respect to the intrinsic biophysical properties of neurones in the parahippocampal region with particular focus on the entorhinal cortex (EC) ... More


5-HT in migraine: evidence from 5-HT receptor antagonists for a neuronal aetiology

J.R. Fozard

in Migraine: A Spectrum of Ideas

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192618108
eISBN:
9780191724305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192618108.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

The fact that antagonists at certain 5-HT receptor subtypes are effective in the prophylaxis or treatment of migraine implicates the endogenous amine in a causal role in the condition. On the basis ... More


Spontaneous and evoked cortical potentials and related neuronal events

O.D. Creutzfeldt

in Cortex Cerebri: Performance, Structural and Functional Organisation of the Cortex

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523246
eISBN:
9780191724510
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523246.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Changes in the activity of cortical neurones lead to potential fluctuations which can be detected in attenuated form at the surface of the cortex. These spontaneously occurring potential fluctuations ... More


CNS immune reactions in Alzheimer’s disease: microglia mediated mechanisms of inflammation in the Alzheimer’s disease brain and their relevance to new therapuetic strategies

Joseph Rogers, Carl J. Kovelowski, and Ron Strohmeyer

in Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Nervous System

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509806
eISBN:
9780191724596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509806.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter examines the immune reactions of the central nervous system in Alzheimer's disease (AD), analysing the role of microglia in the mechanisms of inflammation in the AD brain and their ... More


Neurochemistry of cutaneous nociceptors

Lawson Sally N.

in Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Nociceptive information, that is, information about potentially damaging stimuli, from the skin of the limbs and the trunk, is carried to the spinal cord by several types of nociceptive dorsal root ... More


Comparative and evolutionary aspects of nociceptor function

Walters Edgar T.

in Neurobiology of Nociceptors

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523345
eISBN:
9780191724527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523345.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

By definition, all nociceptors must perform two basic functions: they must detect actual or imminent injury, and they must generate neural signals that can inform the central nervous system (CNS) ... More


5-HT3 receptor antagonists and their potential in psychiatric disorders

Michael G. Palfreyman, Stephen M. Sorensen, Albert A. Carr, Hsien C. Cheng, and Mark W. Dudley

in 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Psychiatry: A Spectrum of Ideas

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192620118
eISBN:
9780191724725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192620118.003.0023
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Classification of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) receptors in the guinea pig ileum into ‘D’ receptors located on smooth muscle cells and those located on intramural cholinergic neurones of the ... More


Biochemical plasticity

James W. Fawcett, Anne E. Rosser, and Stephen B. Dunnett

in Brain Damage, Brain Repair

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523376
eISBN:
9780191724534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523376.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Many events can alter the neurotransmitter phenotype of central nervous system (CNS) neurones. For instance, most neurones down-regulate their neurotransmitters and the enzymes that make them after ... More


Pharmacology

B S K Kamath and Sarah Turle

in MCQs for the Primary FRCA

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199575770
eISBN:
9780191917899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199575770.003.0009
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine

Pharmacology Questions Codeine phosphate Is a prodrug of morphine Is naturally occurring Is not metabolized by up to 3% of the UK population May be used to increase the rate of intestinal ... More


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