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Inductive signals and the assignment of cell fate in the spinal cord and hindbrain: An axial coordinate system for neural patterning

Thomas M. Jessell and Andrew Lumsden

in Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Neural Development

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195111668
eISBN:
9780199865833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195111668.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms that control the identity and pattern of neural cell types generated in vertebrate embryos have focused on three main issues: (i) defining the source and ... More


Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects

Walter Willett

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195122978
eISBN:
9780199864249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122978.003.18
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the link between folic acid and neural tube defects. These include clinical observations and early interventions, case-control and cohort studies of folic acid intake, ... More


Critical appraisal of a randomized trial of a preventive agent

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a randomized clinical trial entitled ‘Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research ... More


Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects

Walter Willett and Elizabeth Lenart

in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199754038
eISBN:
9780199979448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754038.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

Neural tube defects (NTDs) remain one of the most common major congenital abnormalities in the United States and many other countries. They result from failure of the embryonic neural tube to close ... More


Origins and early development of oligodendrocytes

William D. Richardson, Nigel P. Pringle, Wei-Ping Yu, Ellen J. Collarini, and Anita Hall

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter begins with a discussion of the formation of the nervous system. It then describes oligodendrocyte precursors, migration of O-2A progenitors during normal development, oligodendrocyte ... More


Case study 2: mandatory flour fortification with folic acid

Mark Lawrence

in Food Fortification: The evidence, ethics, and politics of adding nutrients to food

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199691975
eISBN:
9780191748806
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691975.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Mandatory flour fortification with folic acid (MFFFA) is a controversial public health policy intervention for reducing the risk for certain women having a neural tube defect-affected pregnancy. It ... More


Log-Linear Model (Poisson Model Applied to Tabular Data)

Steve Selvin

in Epidemiologic Analysis: A Case-Oriented Approach

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195146189
eISBN:
9780199864720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146189.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the influence of vitamin use on the risk of a neural tube birth defect while accounting for possible differences associated with race/ethnicity. Using a loglinear model, the ... More


Study Designs

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes different risk factor study designs. Study designs can be viewed as techniques for organizing observations in ways that can reveal the causes of disease. The risk factor study ... More


A life course approach to neuropsychiatric outcomes

Diana Kuh and Yoav Ben-Shlomo

in A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198578154
eISBN:
9780191724039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198578154.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Emerging evidence suggests that neuropsychiatric outcomes over the life course may be associated with exposures during critical times of brain development and with cumulative exposures over the life ... More


Phylum Vertebrata (Craniata)

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0065
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

This chapter, which focuses on the phylum Vertebrata (Craniata), a monophyletic group that includes humans and other vertebrates, describes the general characters of chordates and the autapomorphies ... More


Nutritional Aspects of Birth Defects

Howard M. Saal

in Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199398911
eISBN:
9780199398942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.003.0060
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses nutritional aspects of birth defects, including physical, biochemical, and other abnormalities; nutritional factors (specifically of neural tube defects); and nutritional ... More


Community psychiatry

Andrew Watson and Gil Myers

in Oxford Assess and Progress: Psychiatry

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199665662
eISBN:
9780191918322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199665662.003.0013
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

An inpatient admission to a psychiatry ward has a high cost both eco­nomically and psychologically. While it is necessary at times to treat someone in hospital, the ... More


The obstetric outcome of pregnant women with psychotic disorders

Louise M. Howard

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199676859
eISBN:
9780191918346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199676859.003.0005
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

In 1996, when I was working with Channi as a psychiatry trainee, we were both struck by how often we were seeing women with psychotic disorders in the ... More


Pregnancy prescribing of psychotropic drugs: Keeping pace in a contemporary landscape

Kathryn M. Abel

in Perinatal Psychiatry: The legacy of Channi Kumar

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199676859
eISBN:
9780191918346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199676859.003.0009
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Pregnant women and their fetuses are more likely than ever to be exposed to antipsychotic medications; perhaps to the newer agents in particular. Drugs ... More


Etiology and Assessment

James C. Harris

in Intellectual Disability: Understanding Its Development, Causes, Classification, Evaluation, and Treatment

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195178852
eISBN:
9780197562284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195178852.003.0008
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

Intellectual disability is a general term that describes intellectual capacity and adaptive functioning. There are many causes and many co-occurring conditions. To ... More


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