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Development of the visual system

Ian P. Howard

in Perceiving in Depth: Volume 1 Basic Mechanisms

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199764143
eISBN:
9780199949359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764143.003.0205
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter starts with a brief outline of how eyes evolved from simple eyespots to complex camera-like eyes. An account of the development of the visual system starts with a description of methods ... More


Effects of visual deprivation

Ian P. Howard

in Perceiving in Depth: Volume 1 Basic Mechanisms

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199764143
eISBN:
9780199949359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199764143.003.0241
Subject:
Psychology, Vision, Cognitive Psychology

Visual deprivation in early life disrupts the development of the visual system, especially binocular vision. The chapter starts with a review of the effects of rearing animals in darkness and the ... More


Neuroplasticity and the Developing Brain

Joan Stiles, Judy S. Reilly, Susan C. Levine, Doris A. Trauner, and Ruth Nass

in Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development: Insights from Children with Perinatal Brain Injury

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780195389944
eISBN:
9780190255718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195389944.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the larger sets of issues that serve to frame the essential questions about neurocognitive development following perinatal brain injury. The first section reviews the evidence ... More


Cognition and Neural Development

Don Tucker and Phan Luu

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199838523
eISBN:
9780199985654
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838523.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Scientific research shows how experience shapes the organization of the human brain through mechanisms of neural plasticity, which capture the information of the world within the connections among ... More


Aspects of Neuroplasticity

John Zerilli

in The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse tells us about Language and Cognition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190067885
eISBN:
9780190067915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190067885.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The brain exhibits an impressive degree of plasticity, even as it ages. Plasticity is really an intrinsic feature of the nervous system, not an exceptional or occasional state. Neuroplasticity ... More


Pursuing a Phantom

Shaun Gallager (ed.)

in How the Body Shapes the Mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199271948
eISBN:
9780191603112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199271941.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

By exploring the phenomenon of phantom limbs in congenital absence of limb (aplasia) it is possible to explicate in detail the prenatal development of body schemas. The same logic that denied the ... More


Plasticity, Pathology, and Pleasure in Cold War America

Cathy Gere

in Plasticity and Pathology: On the Formation of the Neural Subject

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780823266135
eISBN:
9780823266975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823266135.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that reward and punishment were key terms in Cold War debates about neural plasticity. It examines some key episodes in hedonist psychology, culminating in Robert Heath’s 1973 ... More


To consolidate or not to consolidate: what are the questions?

Yadin Dudai and Richard G.M. Morris

in Brain, Perception, Memory: Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524823
eISBN:
9780191689246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524823.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a critical review of the term consolidation, which refers to the processes occurring at the level of the neuron and the synapse during and after memory formation or its neural ... More


Neural Associations

Dale Purves

in Brains as Engines of Association: An Operating Principle for Nervous Systems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190880163
eISBN:
9780190054991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190880163.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

If the operating principle of nervous systems is making trial-and-error associations among neurons by accumulated learning over evolutionary and individual time, a next step is to define ... More


The Neurobiology of Language, Speech, and Music

Jonathan Fritz, David Poeppel, Laurel Trainor, Gottfried Schlaug, Aniruddh D. Patel, Isabelle Peretz, Josef P. Rauschecker, John Halle, Francesca Stregapede, and Lawrence M. Parsons

in Language, Music, and the Brain: A Mysterious Relationship

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262018104
eISBN:
9780262314121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018104.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

To clarify the domain-specific representations in language and music and the common domain-general operations or computations, it is essential to understand the neural foundations of language and ... More


Evidence for Multiple Realization: Neural Plasticity

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Because the multiple realization thesis has been offered as an empirical hypothesis, attention must turn to the evidence on its behalf. Some evidence is direct, in the sense that it purports to ... More


The Dynamic Building of the Brain

Alessandro Sale, Laura Baroncelli, Maria Spolidoro, and Lamberto Maffei

in Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015233
eISBN:
9780262295444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015233.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter discusses the influences of environmental enrichment (EE) on the brain. It gives an example of cross-modal plasticity by which an increased input in a single modality reverberates as a ... More


New Perspectives in the Treatment of Amblyopia

Levi Dennis M.

in Cerebral Plasticity: New Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015233
eISBN:
9780262295444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015233.003.0030
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter presents new perspectives in amblyopia treatment. It provides evidence for plasticity in the adult nervous system. It illustrates that substantial neural plasticity exists in the visual ... More


Neuroscience Perspectives on Cognitive Training

Stefanie E. Kuchinsky and Henk J. Haarmann

in Cognitive and Working Memory Training: Perspectives from Psychology, Neuroscience, and Human Development

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780199974467
eISBN:
9780190076177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199974467.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The aim of this chapter is to spark a discussion regarding how cognitive neuroscience research can aid in the evaluation and development of effective cognitive training protocols. In particular, the ... More


Memory

Lenn E. Goodman and D. Gregory Caramenico

in Coming to Mind: The Soul and Its Body

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780226061061
eISBN:
9780226061238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226061238.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Memory has long been pictured as a mark, a stored image, even a scar. But the modern search for the “engram” and the files that might house such bits of experience proves fruitless. Memory is far ... More


Improving Abnormal Spatial Vision in Adults with Amblyopia

Uri Polat

in Seeing Spatial Form

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195172881
eISBN:
9780199847570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172881.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter deals with the visual processing of adults with amblyopia. Plasticity is deemed to exist in the process and can be used to improve the vision of such patients. Through perceptual ... More


Phases of Recovery

Susan J. Harkema, Andrea L. Behrman, and Hugues Barbeau

in Locomotor Training: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195342086
eISBN:
9780199897063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342086.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

The locomotor training intervention is implemented by identifying specific goals based on the current phase of recovery. Properly and continuously challenging clients to achieve higher levels of ... More


The Language Module Reconsidered

John Zerilli

in The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse tells us about Language and Cognition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190067885
eISBN:
9780190067915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190067885.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

There seems to be no language module, no elementary linguistic unit, no hardwired language organ. Language was probably assembled from older sensory-motor and nonlinguistic materials. Neuroimaging, ... More


Are Modules Innate?

John Zerilli

in The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse tells us about Language and Cognition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190067885
eISBN:
9780190067915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190067885.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

It should by now be clear that modules are sensitive with respect to such experiences as learning, injury, and sensory deprivation, regardless of how young or mature the organism happens to be. And ... More


The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse tells us about Language and Cognition

John Zerilli

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190067885
eISBN:
9780190067915
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190067885.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

What conception of mental architecture can survive the evidence of neuroplasticity and neural reuse in the human brain? In particular, what sorts of modules are compatible with this evidence? This ... More


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