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Conclusion: Future Directions for the New Science

Peter Politser

in Neuroeconomics: A guide to the new science of making choices

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195305821
eISBN:
9780199867783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305821.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with a review of the topics discussed in the preceding chapters. It then discusses the need to “remodel” ideas about the sources of choice and the lack of a systematic framework ... More


Neural Circuits: Cortical Columns and Cortical Processing

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter details notable discoveries about neural circuits in the 1950s. The decade was a golden age of discovery in the cerebral cortex, witnessing the first steps by the pioneers pushing their ... More


Nobuo Suga

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Nobuo Suga. Suga and his collaborators explored the neural mechanisms for parallel and hierarchical processing of biosonar information and the cortical maps ... More


Visual cortex reprogramming following retinal lesions or artificial scotomas: Perceptual effects and neural circuitry

W. Burke

in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528999
eISBN:
9780191723926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528999.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter considers the consequences of retinal lesions and discusses the controversies surrounding retinal lesioning techniques. The perceptual consequences of these techniques are described ... More


A neural systems model of decision making in adolescents

Monique Ernst

in Decision Making, Affect, and Learning: Attention and Performance XXIII

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600434
eISBN:
9780191725623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter focuses on a heuristic neural systems model of motivated behaviour. This model provides hypotheses for mechanisms underlying changes in behaviour across development and psychopathology. ... More


The Basics of Dopamine: How We Learn and Store Value

Paul W. Glimcher

in Foundations of Neuroeconomic Analysis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744251
eISBN:
9780199863433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744251.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter reviews the anatomy of the neural circuits associated with dopamine and valuation; presents theories of reinforcement learning from psychology and computer science that predate ... More


The V1 hypothesis—creating a bottom-up saliency map for preattentive selection and segmentation

Li Zhaoping

in Understanding Vision: Theory, Models, and Data

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199564668
eISBN:
9780191772504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199564668.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter gives a full account of the theoretical development and experimental investigations of the hypothesis that the primary visual cortex (V1) creates a bottom-up saliency map to guide visual ... More


Message received: cellular responses to neuromodulatory signals

Gina G. Turrigiano

in Beyond Neurotransmission: Neuromodulation and its Importance for Information Processing

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524243
eISBN:
9780191724435
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524243.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Many computational models of neural circuits treat neurons as ‘integrate and fire’ devices that linearly sum excitatory and inhibitory inputs and fire an action potential when they pass threshold. ... More


Evolution of Dynamic Coordination

Evan Balaban, Shimon Edelman, Sten Grillner, Uri Grodzinski, Erich D. Jarvis, Jon H. Kaas, Gilles Laurent, and Gordon Pipa

in Dynamic Coordination in the Brain: From Neurons to Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014717
eISBN:
9780262289818
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014717.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Comparative biology can offer important insights into the evolution of dynamic coordination in the brain. This chapter explores the neural machinery and computations shared by all nervous systems ... More


Principles of Neural Design

Peter Sterling and Simon Laughlin

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

The human brain is far smarter than a supercomputer but requires 100,000-fold less energy and space. Such efficient information processing is governed by ten principles of design. These apply to the ... More


The Neural Circuit Providing Input to Midget Ganglion Cells

David W Marshak

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter proposes a neural circuit providing input to a central midget ganglion cell. The narrow field of amacrine cells are unselective in their contacts with bipolar cells, but because their ... More


Neural and Evolutionary Perspectives on Empathy

C. Sue Carter, James Harri, and Stephen W. Porges

in The Social Neuroscience of Empathy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012973
eISBN:
9780262255295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter focuses on autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that underlie social behaviors and emotional states, including those that are believed to reflect empathy in humans. Empathy has been ... More


Neurodegenerative Diseases: Where Are We Not Looking for Answers?

Walter J. Koroshetz and Lennart Mucke

in Translational Neuroscience: Toward New Therapies

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029865
eISBN:
9780262329859
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029865.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

As life expectancy increases, burden of illness soars. The growing magnitude of the health problem and numerous failed trials of agents once considered worth investment (e.g., Alzheimer, Parkinson, ... More


Action, Language, and Music: Events in Time and Models of the Brain

Michael A. Arbib, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, and Uwe Seifert

in Language, Music, and the Brain: A Mysterious Relationship

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262018104
eISBN:
9780262314121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018104.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Many accounts linking music and language to the brain represent the brain as a network of boxes, each of which has an active role in providing some resource, but once we move away from the auditory ... More


Neurophysiological Assessment of Human Motor Control and Changes Caused by Spinal Cord Injury

W. Barry McKay, Arthur M Sherwood, and Simon F. T Tang

in Restorative Neurology of Spinal Cord Injury

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199746507
eISBN:
9780199918768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746507.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Disorders of the Nervous System

The control of movement provides us with the ability to manipulate and move about within our environment, to satisfy our survival needs and to interact with each other. Motor control is also the ... More


Neural Models of Bayesian Belief Propagation

Rajesh P. N. Rao

in Bayesian Brain: Probabilistic Approaches to Neural Coding

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262042383
eISBN:
9780262294188
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262042383.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses neural models of Bayesian inference through belief propagation. It analyses neural implementations of the belief propagation algorithm based on linear recurrent networks, ... More


How Children Develop Empathy: The Contribution of Developmental Affective Neuroscience

Jean Decety and Kalina J. Michalska

in Empathy: From Bench to Bedside

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016612
eISBN:
9780262298612
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016612.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the role of neuroscience in developing empathy in children through analyzing neurological mechanisms. The extension of parental care of the offspring mechanism in social ... More


Empathy versus Personal Distress: Recent Evidence from Social Neuroscience

Jean Decety and Claus Lamm

in The Social Neuroscience of Empathy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012973
eISBN:
9780262255295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter examines empathy as a construct, with an emphasis on a sense of similarity in feelings experienced by the self and the other. It explains how confusion between self and other can turn ... More


The Functional Language Network

Angela D. Friederici and Noam Chomsky

in Language in Our Brain: The Origins of a Uniquely Human Capacity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036924
eISBN:
9780262342964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036924.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

How information content is encoded and decoded in the sending and receiving brain areas is still an open issue. A possible though speculative view is that encoding and decoding requires similarity at ... More


Integrating ethics into neurotechnology research and development: The US National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative®

Khara M. Ramos and Walter J. Koroshetz

in Neuroethics: Anticipating the future

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198786832
eISBN:
9780191839894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786832.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The US-based Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative® is focused on developing new tools and neurotechnologies to revolutionize the understanding of how the ... More


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