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Physiology of axons

J. MURDOCH RITCHIE

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses axonal physiology. Topics covered include the energetic aspects of conduction, ionic basis of the nerve impulse, conduction velocity in axons, inhomogeneity of channel ... More


Galvani’s Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse

Alan McComas

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199751754
eISBN:
9780199897094
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751754.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The nerve impulse is the basis of all human thoughts and emotions, and of all sensations and movements. As such, it has been the subject of scientific enquiry for more than two centuries, beginning ... More


Physiology: The Action Potential

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Creating Modern Neuroscience: The Revolutionary 1950s

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195391503
eISBN:
9780199863464
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391503.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter details early studies on signals in the nervous system. Different parts of the nervous system are interconnected by long fibers called “axons,” which enable them to function together to ... More


Myelin Function and Saltatory Conduction

Stephen G. Waxman and Lakshmi Bangalore

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The need for rapid conduction of the nerve impulse serves as a driving force that can determine and increase animal size. For an axon without myelin, the speed of impulse conduction is proportional ... More


Neuromuscular Excitability: The Modern Explanation

Marco Piccolino, Marco Bresadola, and Nicholas Wade

in Shocking Frogs: Galvani, Volta, and the Electric Origins of Neuroscience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199782161
eISBN:
9780199345182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199782161.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Based on a language largely accessible to a non-specialized readership, this chapter presents some of the fundamental aspects of the modern understanding on the way electricity is involved in nerve ... More


Groundwork: Cellular Events

Alan J. McComas

in Sherrington's Loom: An Introduction to the Science of Consciousness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190936549
eISBN:
9780190936570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936549.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter lays down the groundwork for succeeding discussions by exploring the nervous system. It briefly traces the history of research into the structure of the nervous system and into the ... More


Electricity Works

Alan J. McComas

in Sherrington's Loom: An Introduction to the Science of Consciousness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190936549
eISBN:
9780190936570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936549.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the electrical activity of the brain. It first highlights Richard Caton’s demonstration of slow waves in the rabbit brain before an audience of physicians in Edinburgh in ... More


Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission: Bridging the Gaps (1890-1990)

Joseph D. Robinson

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195137613
eISBN:
9780199848164
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137613.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This book describes a century of research on how nerve cells communicate with one another, beginning with the formulation of the Neuron Theory and proceeding through studies embracing a broad range ... More


Epilogue

Joseph D. Robinson

in Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission: Bridging the Gaps (1890-1990)

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195137613
eISBN:
9780199848164
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137613.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

When formulated late in the 19th century, the Neuron Theory depicted discrete nerve cells interacting at their points of contact. Nerve impulses, then often identified with electrical signals ... More


Benjamin Libet’s Big Experiment

Alan J. McComas

in Sherrington's Loom: An Introduction to the Science of Consciousness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190936549
eISBN:
9780190936570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936549.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter describes Benjamin Libet’s finding that electrical activity in the brain precedes conscious awareness. Libet’s work had shown that, no matter how brief it was, a sensory stimulus evoked ... More


Single Units and Grandmother Cells

Alan J. McComas

in Sherrington's Loom: An Introduction to the Science of Consciousness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190936549
eISBN:
9780190936570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936549.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter turns to a more recent discovery in the human hippocampus, that of “concept” (or “grandmother”) cells. These grandmother cells are neurons that code for multiple aspects of the same ... More


Summary

Alan J. McComas

in Sherrington's Loom: An Introduction to the Science of Consciousness

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190936549
eISBN:
9780190936570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936549.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes the key points of the preceding chapters and embarks on a number of speculations. It shows that the strength of the evidence for each of the preceding statements varies. On ... More


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