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Morbidity and mortality

Vernon Reynolds

in The Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest: Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515463
eISBN:
9780191705656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515463.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Studies of intestinal parasites show that the Budongo chimpanzees live with numerous gut nematodes which they tolerate well. Self-medication is achieved by swallowing the leaves of Aneilema ... More


NEMATOIDEA

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0048
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The Nematoidea is a group of worms with a seemingly unquestioned monophyly. Based on several apomorphies, including the cuticle with layers of crossing collagenous fibrils, the body wall with only ... More


Microbial control

David Wainhouse

in Ecological Methods in Forest Pest Management

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198505648
eISBN:
9780191728150
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198505648.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The practical application of disease-causing micro-organisms for the control of forest pest outbreaks is dominated by their inundative release as microbial insecticides. The characteristics of the ... More


Parasites of North American Frogs

Sutherland Daniel

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

There are two reasons to be interested in the parasites of anurans. First, as a source of instruction: frogs are often utilized in introductory parasitology courses because of the healthy diversity ... More


Hooked on Parasites: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus

Dickson D. Despommier and William C. Campbell

in People, Parasites, and Plowshares: Learning From Our Body's Most Terrifying Invaders

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231161947
eISBN:
9780231535267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231161947.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses the nature of hookworms and how it infects the body of its host. Specifically, it focuses on the characteristics of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These ... More


Phylum Nematoda

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0049
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The Nematoda is a highly successful phylum with about 30,000 known species, but living species are believed to be in millions. All nematodes possess a remarkably similar body plan despite living in ... More


Phylum Nematomorpha

Claus Nielsen

in Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199606023
eISBN:
9780191774706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.003.0050
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Animal Biology

The phylum Nematomorpha, or hair worms, consists of approximately 325 known species of nematode-like parasites that spend the larval stage in the body cavities of arthropods. The adult sexual stage ... More


Controls on Decomposition Processes in Alpine Tundra

Timothy R. Seastedt, Marilyn D. Walker, and David M. Bryant

in Structure and Function of an Alpine Ecosystem: Niwot Ridge, Colorado

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117288
eISBN:
9780197561171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117288.003.0018
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The snowpack gradient in the alpine generates a temperature and moisture gradient that largely controls organic matter decomposition. While low temperatures constrain decomposition and ... More


Roots of Optimism and Anxiety

Susanna Rankin Bohme

in Toxic Injustice: A Transnational History of Exposure and Struggle

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520278981
eISBN:
9780520959811
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520278981.003.0002
Subject:
History, Latin American History

From the early 1950s through early 1960s, Dow and Shell marketed DBCP before toxicological testing was complete. Marketing techniques used the language of science to teach farmers about DBCP’s ... More


Vile Jelly

William Ian Miller

in Outrageous Fortune: Gloomy Reflections on Luck and Life

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780197530689
eISBN:
9780197530887
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197530689.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter reproduces some of the claims in darkly comic form of the author’s Anatomy of Disgust. The presentation is new, but the ideas are much the same. At issue is a less than celebratory view ... More


Soil and Biodiversity

Richard Bardgett

in Earth Matters: How soil underlies civilization

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199668564
eISBN:
9780191918339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199668564.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

One of the most striking things about soil is that it harbours a remarkable diversity of life. A handful of soil from any well-kept garden, forest, or agricultural field, can contain literally ... More


Nature of Soils and Soil Development

Earl B. Alexander, Roger G. Coleman, Todd Keeler-Wolfe, and Susan P. Harrison

in Serpentine Geoecology of Western North America: Geology, Soils, and Vegetation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195165081
eISBN:
9780197562123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195165081.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

We walk on soils frequently, but we seldom observe them. Soils are massive, even though they are porous. Soil 1m (40 inches) deep over an area of 1 hectare (2.5 acres) might weigh 10,000–15,000 ... More


Human Impacts on Soft-Sediment Systems—Pollution

John S. Gray and Michael Elliott

in Ecology of Marine Sediments: From Science to Management

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198569015
eISBN:
9780191916717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198569015.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

A widely accepted definition of marine pollution is“the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such ... More


Deletion

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0017
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Deletion, or trait loss, may seem a step backward rather than a step toward something new. Goldschmidt (1940) emphasized the regressive aspect of deletion ... More


One Final Word: Sex

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0039
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Sex transforms life. It affects morphology and behavior. It diverts enormous amounts of time and energy from the business of survival. It can even distract ... More


Diagnosing Plant Disorders

Robert F. Keefer

in Handbook of Soils for Landscape Architects

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195121025
eISBN:
9780197561270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195121025.003.0019
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Tools to use for diagnosing plant disorders include overall plant appearance, plant tissue testing, total plant analysis, soil testing and analysis, and soil and root abnormalities. Plant ... More


Effects of Grazing on Abundance and Distribution of Shortgrass Steppe Consumers

Daniel G. Milchunas and William K. Lauenroth

in Ecology of the Shortgrass Steppe: A Long-Term Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195135824
eISBN:
9780197561638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195135824.003.0022
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Although livestock are the most obvious consumers on the shortgrass steppe, they are certainly not the only consumers. However, livestock may influence the other consumers in a number of different ... More


Soil Quality in Vineyards

Robert E. White

in Soils for Fine Wines

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195141023
eISBN:
9780197561768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195141023.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

The soil must provide a favorable physical environment for the growth of vines—their roots and beneficial soil organisms. Some of the important properties con­tributing to this condition are ... More


Introduction

John S. Gray and Michael Elliott

in Ecology of Marine Sediments: From Science to Management

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198569015
eISBN:
9780191916717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198569015.003.0004
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

As the oceans cover 70% of the earth’s surface, marine sediments constitute the second largest habitat on earth, after the ocean water column, and yet we still know more about the dark side of the ... More


Describing Assemblages of Sediment-living Organisms

John S. Gray and Michael Elliott

in Ecology of Marine Sediments: From Science to Management

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198569015
eISBN:
9780191916717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198569015.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

One of the most fruitful aspects of ecological research is the search for common patterns in the bewildering variability of nature. Given current concerns about global warming, climate change, and ... More


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