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Dispositional Essentialism at the Laws of Nature

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter commences with the claim — which originates with Shoemaker — that fundamental natural properties are potencies, i.e., they have dispositional essences. Following Swoyer, it is explained ... More


Spinoza's Necessitarianism Reconsidered

Edwin Curley and Gregory Walski

in New Essays on the Rationalists

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195165418
eISBN:
9780199868285
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195165411.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

In this paper, we defend the view that Spinoza is committed to allowing for the existence of a plurality of possible worlds, that his necessitarianism is merely moderate, not strict enough to exclude ... More


Winning the Battle, Losing the War

Ann Lee Bressler

in The Universalist Movement in America, 1770-1880

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195129861
eISBN:
9780199834013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195129865.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

When Hosea Ballou died in 1852, belief in the supernatural rule of God apparently held sway among most American Protestants, but the idea of universal salvation remained highly suspect. Twenty years ... More


In defense of some received views

John T. Roberts

in The Law-Governed Universe

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199557707
eISBN:
9780191721052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557707.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter defends four assumptions that will be taken for granted in the chapters to follow. None of these four assumptions is uncommon, but none is uncontroversial. One assumption is that at ... More


Nature's Challenge to Free Will

Bernard Berofsky

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199640010
eISBN:
9780191738197
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640010.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Hardly any attempt to come to grips with the classical problem of free will and determinism directly addresses the metaphysical vision driving the concerns of those who believe that a significant ... More


Introduction

Bernard Berofsky

in Nature's Challenge to Free Will

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199640010
eISBN:
9780191738197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640010.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

The classical problem of free will and determinism is a metaphysical problem that cannot, therefore, be solved through analyses of moral or evaluative notions like responsibility and agency. It is ... More


Of Liberty and Necessity: The Free Will Debate in Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy

James A. Harris

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199268603
eISBN:
9780191603136
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268606.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This book presents the first detailed account of the discussion of the free will problem in British philosophy in the ‘long’ eighteenth century, beginning with Locke and ending with Dugald Stewart. ... More


Modality, Determinism, and Freedom

Susanne Bobzien

in Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199247677
eISBN:
9780191597091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247676.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Central passages: Boethius On Interpretation II 234–5; Diogenes Laertius 7.75; Plutarch, On Stoic Self‐contradictions 1055d–f; Alexander of Aphrodisias On Fate 176.14–23. In the Stoic debate over ... More


The Necessity of Finite Modes and Geometrical Containment in Spinoza's Metaphysics

Charles Huenemann

in New Essays on the Rationalists

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195165418
eISBN:
9780199868285
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195165411.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This essay argues that Spinoza believed that each finite mode is absolutely necessitated by God's nature and is causally necessitated by the laws of nature in conjunction with other finite modes. A ... More


The Skeptical Argument Further Examined: on Resources, Allegedly Overlooked, for Confirming Psychophysical Identities

LaPorte Joseph

in Rigid Designation and Theoretical Identities

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199609208
eISBN:
9780191745027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609208.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

The skeptical argument against specific statements identifying a phenomenal property with a scientific one has been criticized for overlooking two salient resources that would put an end to ... More


Necessitarian Approaches

Gordon Belot

in Geometric Possibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199595327
eISBN:
9780191729157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595327.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops and examines a variety of modal relationalism analogous to necessitarian accounts of laws of nature. The opening discussion characterizes such accounts of laws of nature, ... More


Necessity and Nature in Spinoza's Philosophy

Don Garrett

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780195307771
eISBN:
9780190880019
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195307771.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Spinoza’s guiding commitment to the thesis that nothing exists or occurs outside of the scope of nature and its necessary laws makes him one of the great seventeenth-century exemplars of both ... More


The Godwinian Critic

Philipp Hunnekuhl

in Henry Crabb Robinson: Romantic Comparatist, 1790-1811

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781789621785
eISBN:
9781800341388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781789621785.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

Chapter two discloses how Robinson’s in-depth study of William Godwin’s Political Justice prompted his first theory of literature, published in a mid-1795 article in Benjamin Flower’s radical ... More


Supervenience and the Relation Problem

Robert J. Howell

in Consciousness and the Limits of Objectivity: The Case for Subjective Physicalism

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199654666
eISBN:
9780191753091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654666.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends a supervenience characterization of physicalism, according to which something is physical in a broad sense if it is necessitated by the fundamental physical properties in this ... More


Laws of Nature

Alastair Wilson

in The Nature of Contingency: Quantum Physics as Modal Realism

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198846215
eISBN:
9780191881374
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846215.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

One of the most attractive features of quantum modal realism is the unified and explanatory theory of laws of nature which it enables. Quantum modal realism incorporates a layered model of laws which ... More


From “Epicurean” Physics to Ethics

David S. Sytsma

in Richard Baxter and the Mechanical Philosophers

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190274870
eISBN:
9780190274894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274870.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter discusses Baxter’s theory of natural law and his polemics against Thomas Hobbes and Benedict de Spinoza on ethical matters. Baxter’s natural law theory drew on Francisco Suárez’s De ... More


A universe of explanations

Ghislain Guigon

in Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, Volume 9

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198729242
eISBN:
9780191796258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729242.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter explores an objection to explanatory universalism, the doctrine that the principle of sufficient reason (PSR) is true or everything has an explanation. This objection is a direct ... More


The Causa Sui and the Ontological Argument, or the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Is-Ought Distinction

Omri Boehm

in Kant’s Critique of Spinoza

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199354801
eISBN:
9780199354825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199354801.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Spinoza’s causa sui poses a challenge to Kant’s attack on rational cosmology, and thereby to his attack on metaphysical rationalism as a whole. The chapter suggests the Kantian response, namely that ... More


Truth, Method, and Correspondence in Spinoza and Leibniz

Don Garrett

in Necessity and Nature in Spinoza's Philosophy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780195307771
eISBN:
9780190880019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195307771.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses Spinoza’s and Leibniz’s specific criticisms of Descartes’s use of his so-called “truth rule”—that is, the principle that whatever is perceived clearly and distinctly is ... More


Time, Chance, and the Necessity of Everything

Alexander Bird

in Chance and Temporal Asymmetry

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199673421
eISBN:
9780191782534
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199673421.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

There is no contingency in the world. This chapter shows how premises that all have some plausibility in metaphysics and physics lead to this conclusion, that every true proposition is necessarily ... More


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