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Preliminaries

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter characterizes essentialism, and distinguishes essentialism about individuals from essentialism about natural kinds, arguing that the first does, but the second need not, involve de re ... More


Donnellan on the Necessary A Posteriori

Erin Eaker

in Having in Mind: The Philosophy of Keith Donnellan

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199844845
eISBN:
9780199933501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844845.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter seeks to bring to light some of Keith Donnellan’s underappreciated views concerning the surprising metaphysical claim that is supposed to follow from a popular theory of reference. The ... More


Introduction

Brian Leftow

in God and Necessity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199263356
eISBN:
9780191741777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263356.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter introduces conflicts between standard Western theist beliefs about God, clustered about His being creator and sustainer of all, and belief in necessary truths. Western theists believe ... More


Explaining the necessary

Brian Leftow

in God and Necessity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199263356
eISBN:
9780191741777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263356.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter rebuts objections to the general project of explaining the truth and modal status of necessary truths. It also explains the sense in which secular necessary truths depend on God and ... More


Necessary and Contingent Truths

Benson Mates

in The Philosophy of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Language

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195059465
eISBN:
9780199833429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195059468.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

To reconcile his account of truth with his acceptance of the distinction between necessary and contingent truths, Leibniz introduces a distinction between absolute and hypothetical necessity. It ... More


Tracking over the Rivals

Sherrilyn Roush

in Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199274734
eISBN:
9780191603228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199274738.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that the new tracking view is superior to externalist rivals: process reliabilism, the safety view, and the relevant alternatives view. This is because of the generality problem, ... More


Evolution and the Necessities of Thought

Barry Stroud

in Meaning, Understanding, and Practice: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252145
eISBN:
9780191598487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252149.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Examines the notion of necessity and the special problems it poses for knowledge. The conventionalist response is to see necessary truth as the product of thinking and the decision to act in certain ... More


Analytic Philosophy of Religion

William Hasker

in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195138092
eISBN:
9780199835348
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138090.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Analytic philosophy of religion was gestated in the nineteen forties, born in the early fifties, spent its childhood in the sixties, and its adolescence in the seventies and early eighties. Since ... More


The Possibility of Knowledge of Necessary Truths

Hugh Rice

in God and Goodness

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250289
eISBN:
9780191598302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250282.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Concerned with the question of how our beliefs in necessary truths can be reasonable. In the course of considering this general question, I argue that our belief in objective value—that some things ... More


Leibniz: The Defence of Innate Ideas

Nicholas Jolley

in The Light of the Soul: Theories of Ideas in Leibniz, Malebranche, and Descartes

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238195
eISBN:
9780191597824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238193.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

It would be foolish to try to pretend that Malebranche is always Leibniz's primary target in his writings on innate ideas. Obviously, the arguments of the New Essays are powerfully shaped by the ... More


A Priori Knowledge

Richard Foley

in When Is True Belief Knowledge?

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154725
eISBN:
9781400842308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154725.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter shows how some kinds of knowledge are not readily understandable in terms of adequate information if for no other reason than they seem not to be linked with specific truths. Knowledge ... More


Metaphysics

Colin McGinn

in Philosophical Provocations: 55 Short Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036191
eISBN:
9780262340090
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036191.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter explores philosophical issues in metaphysics. It begins by distinguishing between de re and de dicto necessity. All necessity is uniformly de re; there is simply no such thing as de ... More


Brute Necessity and the Mind–Body Problem

James Van Cleve

in Brute Facts

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198758600
eISBN:
9780191818523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758600.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

In a growing number of papers one encounters arguments to the effect that certain philosophical views are objectionable because they would imply that there are necessary truths for whose necessity ... More


“Two Great Principles” and Two Lesser Ones

Benson Mates

in The Philosophy of Leibniz: Metaphysics and Language

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195059465
eISBN:
9780199833429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195059468.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The “two great principles” are the principle of contradiction (“every proposition is either true or false, and not both”) and the principle of sufficient reason (“nothing occurs for which it would be ... More


On Carnap's Elimination of Metaphysics

P. M. S Hacker

in Wittgenstein: Connections and Controversies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199245697
eISBN:
9780191602245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924569X.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Carnap’s 1931–2 paper ‘The Elimination of Metaphysics through the Logical Analysis of Language’ is surveyed, and Carnap’s criticisms of metaphysics are elucidated. The relationship between Carnap’s ... More


Conclusion

Robert Audi

in Moral Perception

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156484
eISBN:
9781400846320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156484.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This concluding chapter explains how the theory of moral perception takes full account of the causal element in perception but does not require naturalizing moral properties. However, the theory does ... More


Naturalism

Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

in Moral Skepticisms

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195187724
eISBN:
9780199786121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195187725.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys traditional responses to the skeptical regress problem for justified moral belief. It looks at naturalism, which attempts to derive “ought” from “is” or, more precisely, to ... More


Necessity

William E. Mann

in God, Modality, and Morality

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199370764
eISBN:
9780199373635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199370764.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Moral Philosophy

Theists generally believe that God exists necessarily and that God’s creative activity is responsible for all contingent truths and for all necessary truths. Descartes thought that God’s omnipotence ... More


Logical Aliens and the ‘Ground’ of Logical Necessity

Barry Stroud

in Seeing, Knowing, Understanding: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
July 2018
ISBN:
9780198809753
eISBN:
9780191859205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198809753.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter examines James Conant’s account of Gottlob Frege’s conception of the special character of the laws of logic. It also examines whether or how that conception figures in Frege’s opposition ... More


Exemplarist Semantics and Meta-Ethics

Linda Zagzebski

in Exemplarist Moral Theory

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780190655846
eISBN:
9780190655853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190655846.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter I look at a famous argument that there are necessary a posteriori truths that comes from Saul Kripke, modified by Keith Donnellan, and discussed by Nathan Salmon. I then raise the ... More


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