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Causation, Necessary Connection, and Power

Henry E. Allison

in Custom and Reason in Hume: A Kantian Reading of the First Book of the Treatise

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199532889
eISBN:
9780191714450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532889.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter analyzes Hume'theory of causation and its connection with the associated notions of necessary connection and power. It is divided into five parts. The first two deal respectively with ... More


“No Necessary Connection”: The Medieval Roots of the Occasionalist Roots of Humen

Steven Nadler

in Occasionalism: Causation Among the Cartesians

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780198250081
eISBN:
9780191712586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250081.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A number of philosophers, from the medieval period on (some of whom were occasionalists), have argued that a central feature of causal relations is a necessary connection between cause and effect. ... More


Cause and Effect

Kenneth P. Winkler

in Berkeley: An Interpretation

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235095
eISBN:
9780191598685
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235097.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Berkeley holds that only spirits can be causes. I trace this conclusion to his belief that minds or spirits are able to render their effects intelligible in a way that unthinking things cannot. ... More


Lewis's Animadversions on the Truthmaker Principle

Fraser MacBride

in Truthmakers: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199283569
eISBN:
9780191712708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283569.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

The early David Lewis was a staunch critic of the Truthmaker Principle. To endorse the principle, he argued, is to accept that states of affairs are truthmakers for contingent predications. But ... More


Dualistic Materialism 1

Joseph Almog

in The Waning of Materialism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199556182
eISBN:
9780191721014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556182.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends a position that is both dualistic (recognizing the distinctness and the difference in nature between mental and physical events) and materialistic (in the sense of positing a ... More


About Morality and the Nature of Law

Joseph Raz

in Between Authority and Interpretation: On the Theory of Law and Practical Reason

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199562688
eISBN:
9780191705342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562688.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter explores the connection between law and morality. It argues that the denial of necessary connections between law and morality cannot be sustained. However, many of the claims of specific ... More


Of Knowledge and Probability

Robert J. Fogelin

in Hume's Skeptical Crisis: A Textual Study

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195387391
eISBN:
9780199866489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387391.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter offers a quick tour of book 1, part 3 of the Treatise, a portion of the text where Hume sets forth what he takes to be some of his most important discoveries in his pursuit of a science ... More


Malebranche and the Cognitive Model of Causation

Walter Ott

in Causation and Laws of Nature in Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199570430
eISBN:
9780191722394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570430.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Drawing on Descartes's “little souls” argument, Malebranche claims that attributing causal powers to bodies is in effect a category mistake. According to the cognitive model of causation Malebranche ... More


Régis Against the Occasionalists

Walter Ott

in Causation and Laws of Nature in Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199570430
eISBN:
9780191722394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570430.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

Drawing on scholastic sources such as Aquinas, Régis argues that occasionalism cannot account for the diversity of effects in the natural world. Moreover, Régis argues, motion cannot exist without ... More


Probable Reasoning: The Negative Argument

David Owen

in Hume's Reason

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199252602
eISBN:
9780191598159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199252602.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Hume's negative argument about probable reasoning is sometimes called the problem of induction. The modern version of that argument is centrally concerned with the warrant of probable reasoning and ... More


Objectivity

George Molnar

in Powers: A Study in Metaphysics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199204175
eISBN:
9780191695537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199204175.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses objectivity by using a necessary element called ‘necessary connection’. It explains that the issue is not just of powers but also of laws of nature and the causal relation ... More


Materialism, Minimal Emergentism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness

Terry Horgan

in The Waning of Materialism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199556182
eISBN:
9780191721014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556182.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter formulates and motivates the current favored articulation of the metaphysical doctrine of materialism. It describes an alternative metaphysical position called minimal emergentism, which ... More


The Unity of Kant’s Active Thinker

Patricia Kitcher

in Transcendental Philosophy and Naturalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199608553
eISBN:
9780191729645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608553.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines Kant’s theory of the unity of apperception and the argument he offers for it in the transcendental deduction of the Critique of Pure Reason. His theory is that the unity of ... More


The Soul and the Self

Robert J. Fogelin

in Hume's Skeptical Crisis: A Textual Study

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195387391
eISBN:
9780199866489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387391.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter concerns Hume's treatment of the related, though different, notions of soul as an immaterial substance and self as a mental substance. Much of this discussion repeats the attacks on the ... More


Introduction

Ted Honderich

in Mind and Brain: A Theory of Determinism, Volume 1

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242826
eISBN:
9780191680588
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242826.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Connections called nomic or lawlike connections, to distinguish them from logically necessary connections rooted in words and other symbols, are pervasive in the natural world, and fundamental to it. ... More


Ontology II: From World–Brain Relation to Consciousness

Georg Northoff

in The Spontaneous Brain: From the Mind-Body to the World-Brain Problem

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780262038072
eISBN:
9780262346962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262038072.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

How can we account for the existence and reality of consciousness and mental features in general? The present chapter complements the previous one by shifting the focus from the ontological ... More


Hart on Legality, Justice, and Morality

John Gardner

in Law as a Leap of Faith: Essays on Law in General

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199695553
eISBN:
9780191741296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695553.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter attempts to provide textual support for the view that Hart did find necessary connections - many of them - between law and morality. The bulk of the chapter is devoted to exploring just ... More


On Being Humean about the Emptiness of Causation

Ricki Bliss

in The Moon Points Back

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780190226862
eISBN:
9780190226893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190226862.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Buddhism

This chapter examines the implications of the doctrine of emptiness for the Madhyamaka analysis of the crucial notion of causation. It is not uncommon in the contemporary commentarial tradition to ... More


Hume’s Skeptical Treatment of the Causal Inductive Inference

Graciela De Pierris

in Ideas, Evidence, and Method: Hume's Skepticism and Naturalism concerning Knowledge and Causation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716785
eISBN:
9780191785368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716785.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Chapter 4 develops a novel skeptical inductivist interpretation of Hume’s argument concerning the inference from observed constant conjunction. It rejects deductivist skeptical and anti-skeptical ... More


Hume, Malebranche, and the Last Occult Quality

Nicholas Jolley

in Causality and Mind: Essays on Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199669554
eISBN:
9780191763076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669554.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

There is an emerging consensus that Malebranche’s occasionalism is an interesting, but unstable, halfway house on the road to Hume’s theory of causality. This chapter seeks to challenge this emerging ... More


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