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LAMBDA-CALCULI FOR INTUITIONISTIC AND CLASSICAL PROOFS

David J. Pym and Eike Ritter

in Reductive Logic and Proof-search: Proof Theory, Semantics, and Control

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526339
eISBN:
9780191712012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526339.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter provides an explanation of natural deduction proof systems and their corresponding lambda-calculi. Beginning with the necessary basics of natural deduction systems for intuitionistic ... More


Classifying Sciences: Systematics and Status in mid-Victorian Natural History

Jim Endersby

in The Organisation of Knowledge in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263266
eISBN:
9780191734854
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263266.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter discusses mid-Victorian natural history sciences, focusing on the disputes over the classification within both the zoological and botanical communities. Zoologists argued over the merits ... More


Natural Complexity: A Modeling Handbook

Paul Charbonneau

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176840
eISBN:
9781400885497
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176840.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming Languages

This book provides a short, hands-on introduction to the science of complexity using simple computational models of natural complex systems—with models and exercises drawn from physics, chemistry, ... More


Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Wu Yang, Andrés Viña, Xiaodong Chen, Zhiyun Ouyang, and Hemin Zhang (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This book synthesizes two decades of interdisciplinary research on complex interactions between a global conservation icon (the giant panda) and people, as well as its applications to human–nature ... More


Framing Sustainability of Coupled Human and Natural Systems

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Neil Carter, Andrés Viña, and Wu Yang

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The ongoing quest to overcome precipitating threats and strive for global sustainability requires a sound foundation for understanding the complex ways in which humans and nature affect one another. ... More


Collective Harms and the Market: Problems of Causation

Jethro K. Lieberman

in Liberalism Undressed

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199919840
eISBN:
9780199980376
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199919840.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

The chapter proposes that the economic market can be a significant source of harm under the harm principle and is not merely a natural force. The capacity to harm is a consequence of the substitution ... More


Applications of the Telecoupling Framework to Land-Change Science

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Emilio Moran, Harini Nagendra, Simon R. Swaffield, and B. L. Turner II

in Rethinking Global Land Use in an Urban Era

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262026901
eISBN:
9780262322126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026901.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Land systems are increasingly influenced by distal connections: the externalities and unintended consequences of social and ecological processes which occur in distant locations, and the feedback ... More


The Historical Structure of Disorder: Urban Ecology in Los Angeles and Beyond

Jared Orsi

in Hazardous Metropolis: Flooding and Urban Ecology in Los Angeles

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520238503
eISBN:
9780520930087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520238503.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Los Angeles is by no means extraordinary or exceptional in catastrophes. Its droughts are not Sahelian; its floods would be puny on the Mississippi; and its earthquakes have not approached the ... More


Computation, Information, and Interperspectival Content

Peter Ludlow

in Interperspectival Content

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780198823797
eISBN:
9780191862571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198823797.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

It is argued that perspectival contents run deeply through our accounts of computation and information, and that perspectival content is critical to our interpretation of natural and artifactual ... More


Emergence and Collapse of Early Villages: Models of Central Mesa Verde Archaeology

Timothy Kohler and Mark Varien (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520270145
eISBN:
9780520951990
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520270145.001.0001
Subject:
Anthropology, American and Canadian Cultural Anthropology

Ancestral Pueblo farmersexpanded into the deep, productive, well-watered soils of the central Mesa Verde region of southwestern Colorado around AD 600, and within two centuries built some of the ... More


Future Directions for Coupled Human and Natural Systems Research

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Zhiyun Ouyang, and Hemin Zhang

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Future development in several areas is needed for the science of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) to grow to new heights. Longer-term research is crucial to help explicate complexities such ... More


Cross-Site Synthesis of Complexity in Coupled Human and Natural Systems

Neil Carter, Li An, and Jianguo Liu

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Research on coupled human and natural systems has enriched knowledge on how humans and nature interact and how such interactions in turn affect global sustainability. But to move this emerging field ... More


Lessons from Local Studies for Global Sustainability

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Wu Yang, Andrés Viña, Li An, Neil Carter, Xiaodong Chen, Wei Liu, Zhiyun Ouyang, and Hemin Zhang

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Two decades of interdisciplinary research in Wolong Nature Reserve and beyond has revealed many complexities of human–nature interactions. This chapter summarizes ten overarching lessons from the ... More


Human-Nature Interactions over Distances

Jianguo Liu, Vanessa Hull, Junyan Luo, Wu Yang, Wei Liu, Andrés Viña, Christine Vogt, Zhenci Xu, Hongbo Yang, Jindong Zhang, Li An, Xiaodong Chen, Shuxin Li, William McConnell, Zhiyun Ouyang, Weihua Xu, and Hemin Zhang

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Many studies have focused on human–nature interactions within a particular area, but there is little research on multiple reciprocal interactions, simultaneous socioeconomic and environmental ... More


Forging Collaborations between Ecology and Historical Ecology

Steven C. Pennings

in The Archaeology and Historical Ecology of Small Scale Economies

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780813042428
eISBN:
9780813043074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813042428.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

Ecologists and historical ecologists study many of the same questions, seeking to understand interactions between humans, other species, and the environment, but over different time scales. ... More


The Tangled Web of People, Landscapes, and Protected Areas

Ruth Defries

in Science, Conservation, and National Parks

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780226422954
eISBN:
9780226423142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226423142.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Protected areas currently comprise a substantial land use and cover 14% of the Earth’s land surface. Their expansion in recent decades, combined with increasing economic growth and aspirations in ... More


Peek into a Home for Pandas and People

Vanessa Hull, Wu Yang, Wei Liu, Yingchun Tan, Jian Yang, Hemin Zhang, Zhiyun Ouyang, and Jianguo Liu

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Research on human–nature interactions benefits from in-depth and long-term case studies in model coupled human and natural systems. This chapter introduces the book’s model coupled system studied ... More


Vulnerability and Adaptation to Natural Disasters

Wu Yang, Andrés Viña, Thomas Dietz, Vanessa Hull, Daniel Kramer, Zhiyun Ouyang, and Jianguo Liu

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The number and scale of natural disasters have increased in the past decades and may continue to rise in the future. Thus, it is crucial to quantitatively understand how to reduce vulnerability, ... More


Toward a Sustainable Future

Vanessa Hull, William McConnell, Marc Linderman, and Jianguo Liu

in Pandas and People: Coupling Human and Natural Systems for Sustainability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198703549
eISBN:
9780191820700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703549.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Scenario analysis is a powerful tool for exploring alternative futures of coupled human and natural systems. This chapter highlights some scenario analyses in the model coupled system—Wolong Nature ... More


Linkages of Sustainability: An Introduction

Thomas E. Graedel and Ester van der Voet

in Linkages of Sustainability

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013581
eISBN:
9780262258845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013581.003.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses the linkages among the needs for and limits of sustainability. It begins by identifying the components of sustainability and then presents examples of some of its challenges. ... More


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