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What Are Natural Products?

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

All organisms are made up of chemicals. There is a common collection of several hundreds of substances that are produced by all living organisms. However, hundreds of thousands of different chemicals ... More


Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Richard Firn

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Natural Products (NPs) is the term used to describe the hundreds of thousands of chemical compounds or substances that are continually produced by living organisms (plants and microbes). Hundreds of ... More


Why Do Organisms Make NPs?

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses why organisms make Natural Products. The most widely accepted model, the Chemical Co-evolution Model, proposed that the interactions between a plant species and insects (which ... More


The Importance of NPs in Human Affairs

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter shows how human obsession for certain NPs (e.g. coffee, tea, spices, morphine, cocaine, hops, quinine, etc.) has influenced world history. If one looks at NPs as a group rather than each ... More


Natural Products and the Pharmaceutical Industry

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Natural Products have been exploited by humans as a means of treating illness, ailments and infections throughout recorded human history. Worldwide, NPs are still of major importance in health care. ... More


Kant on Understanding Organisms as Natural Purposes

Hannah Ginsborg

in Kant and the Sciences

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195133059
eISBN:
9780199786169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195133056.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This paper explains why Kant thinks that organisms must be regarded as purposes, and how this can be done while respecting their status as natural products rather than artifacts. Kant’s premise that ... More


From Molecules to Medicines: The Use of Genetic Resources in Pharmaceutical Research

Astrid J. Scholz

in Engineering Trouble: Biotechnology and Its Discontents

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520237612
eISBN:
9780520937499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520237612.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes the drug discovery process in pharmaceutical research to show how deeply the new biotechnologies constitute the politics and economics of genetic resources. The analysis ... More


NPs, Chemicals and the Environment

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The organisms that make Natural Products have been producing tens of thousands of different chemicals, totalling billions of tonnes every year, for billions of years. Hence, organisms have evolved to ... More


The Genetic Modification of NP Pathways—Possible Opportunities and Possible Pitfalls

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Natural Products are such an important part of the world's economy that it was inevitable that academic and industrial scientists would cast their eyes over the organisms making NPs, and consider how ... More


The Evolution of Metabolism

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In biology, many long-held categorisations were finally abandoned because they were no longer productive or meaningful, or they lacked an adequate evolutionary underpinning. This chapter presents a ... More


The Chemical Interactions between Organisms

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter focuses on the important role of Natural Products in determining the interactions between individuals (of the same or of different species) that cohabit an area. The interactions between ... More


Economic Botany & the Limits of the Visual

Daniela Bleichmar

in Visible Empire: Botanical Expeditions and Visual Culture in the Hispanic Enlightenment

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226058535
eISBN:
9780226058559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226058559.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the metropolitan and viceregal attempts to locate and exploit valuable natural products like pepper, cinnamon, tea, and cinchona in the Spanish Indies. It explains that the ... More


How to explore the sometimes unusual chemistry of aquatic defence chemicals

Georg Pohnert

in Chemical Ecology in Aquatic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199583096
eISBN:
9780191810091
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199583096.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter introduces two defence strategies that do not fall within the categories of constitutive, activated, or induced defences. The first one relies on very simple primary metabolites or their ... More


The Visual Arts and Alchemy

in Promethean Ambitions: Alchemy and the Quest to Perfect Nature

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226577128
eISBN:
9780226577135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226577135.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes the relationship between visual arts and alchemy. Early modern practitioners of the visual arts were keenly interested in alchemy as a body of technical processes, especially ... More


Constituents of Cannabis Sativa

Mahmoud A. ElSohly and Waseem Gul

in Handbook of Cannabis

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199662685
eISBN:
9780191787560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662685.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. This plant has been used for multiple purposes (medicinal, recreational, seed oil and industrial ... More


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