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Kinds, Essence, and Natural Necessity

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The distinction between natural necessity and metaphysical necessity is examined. An account is advanced of the logical form of statements of natural law, contrasting with that of D. M. Armstrong. ... More


The Contingent Reality of Natural Necessity

Galen Strawson

in Real Materialism: and Other Essays

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199267422
eISBN:
9780191708343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267422.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Some think the regularity theory of causation must be true. They argue that the regularity of the world must in the end be a ‘brute’ fact, something for which there is no reason or explanation. This ... More


The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God

John Foster

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199250592
eISBN:
9780191600913
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250596.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

In our experience so far, the universe has worked in remarkably regular ways, and these regularities call for explanation. One way of accounting for them would be to suppose that things have been ... More


Categorial Ontology and Scientific Essentialism

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The sense in which laws are necessary is reviewed. The relationship between natural laws and natural kinds is emphasized. The relationship between natural laws and causal powers is further explored, ... More


Natural Necessity

Marc Lange

in Laws and Lawmakers Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195328134
eISBN:
9780199870042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328134.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Natural necessity is analyzed in terms of “sub-nomic stability” (introduced in Chapter 1). The various species of necessity correspond to the various nonmaximal sets possessing sub-nomic stability. ... More


The Problem of Laws

John Foster

in The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199250592
eISBN:
9780191600913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250596.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The most crucial problem for NES concerns the relevant notion of a law of nature. In order to play the explanatory role assigned to them by NES, laws have to be construed not as mere regularities, ... More


The Nomological-Explanatory Solution

John Foster

in The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2004
ISBN:
9780199250592
eISBN:
9780191600913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250596.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The right way to deal with the problem of induction is to adopt what I call the nomological‐explanatory solution (NES). This holds that when an inductive inference is rational, it ... More


How agent-causation works II: the irreducibility of powers

Erasmus Mayr

in Understanding Human Agency

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199606214
eISBN:
9780191731631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606214.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is shown that powers are both conceptually and ontologically irreducible to non-power (i.e. categorical) properties. This involves both rejecting the three most influential conceptual analyses of ... More


Epistemology, Semantics, Ontology, and David Hume

Galen Strawson

in Real Materialism: and Other Essays

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199267422
eISBN:
9780191708343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267422.003.0020
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Hume is not a ‘Humean’ about causation. His key thesis is epistemological; he claims that all we can know of causation is regular succession. His claim is not ontological; he does not hold that ... More


Laws and Modalities in Scientific Practice

Joseph Rouse

in Articulating the World: Conceptual Understanding and the Scientific Image

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293677
eISBN:
9780226293707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293707.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter addresses how laws and natural necessity figure in scientific understanding, by developing and extending Marc Lange’s and John Haugeland’s complementary accounts of the role of laws in ... More


David Hume: Objects and Power

Galen Strawson

in Real Materialism: and Other Essays

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199267422
eISBN:
9780191708343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267422.003.0019
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Hume is not a ‘Humean’ about causation. His key thesis is epistemological; he claims that all we can know of causation is regular succession. His claim is not ontological; he does not hold that ... More


Realism and Causation

Galen Strawson

in Real Materialism: and Other Essays

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199267422
eISBN:
9780191708343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267422.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Regularity realism (‘r’) is indefensible: the regularity theory of causation is not cotenable with any ordinary realism about the physical world. The first main argument of this chapter is that rr is ... More


Natural versus Moral Necessity in the Will

Jonathan Edwards

in Early Evangelicalism: A Reader

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199916955
eISBN:
9780190258368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199916955.003.0026
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter presents excerpts from Jonathan Edwards's A Careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of That Freedom of Will, Which is Supposed to Be Essential to Moral Agency, ... More


The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume: Revised Edition

Galen Strawson

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199605842
eISBN:
9780191774447
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199605842.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

According to the regularity theory of causation, all there is to causation is regular succession. On this view, for A to be the cause of B is just for all things of type A to be followed by things of ... More


Counterfactuals and Humean Reduction

Robert C. Stalnaker

in Knowledge and Conditionals: Essays on the Structure of Inquiry

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198810346
eISBN:
9780191847332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810346.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter comprises an exposition and critique of David Lewis’s metaphysical thesis of Humean supervenience and the reductive account of counterfactuals and other concepts in the natural necessity ... More


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