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Manifest Realism II: Why Gold is Necessarily a Yellow Metal

Robert Hanna

in Kant, Science, and Human Nature

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199285549
eISBN:
9780191713965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285549.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter aims to work out the positive theory behind Kant's surprising claim that gold is necessarily a yellow metal, using scientific essentialism only as a critical foil. It discusses Kant's ... More


The Roots of Reference

Timothy McCarthy

in Radical Interpretation and Indeterminacy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145069
eISBN:
9780199833436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145062.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Applies the ‘Conformal Framework’ developed in Ch. 2 to some problems of the classical theory of reference, namely, to the question of how the reference of expressions in specific problem categories, ... More


Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Scott Soames

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In Naming and Necessity Saul Kripke undermined descriptive analyses of names by showing that names are rigid designators; thereby telling us what their meanings are not, but not what they are. In ... More


What Is It for a General Term to Be a Rigid Designator?

Scott Soames

in Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Ch. 9 initiates an investigation of the similarities between proper names and natural kind terms by arguing that although most proper names are clearly rigid, application of the notion of rigid ... More


What Do Natural Kind Predicates Have in Common With Proper Names?

Scott Soames

in Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In Ch.10, it is argued that the crucial similarities between proper names and natural kind terms, including simple natural kind predicates, are the result of the nondescriptionality of such terms, ... More


Natural Kind Predicates, Mass Nouns, and Abstract Singular Terms

Scott Soames

in Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Building on work begun in Ch. 10, I attempt to find another way of characterizing the semantic similarities between natural kind predicates and proper names. In this chapter, I provide a different, ... More


Radical Interpretation and Indeterminacy

Timothy McCarthy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145069
eISBN:
9780199833436
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145062.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Attempts to offer a response to Quine's arguments for the indeterminacy of reference and translation by developing an original theory of radical interpretation, i.e. the project of characterising ... More


The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Scott Soames

in Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter sets out the unfinished semantic agenda of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, the first item of which is a positive theory of the meaning of proper names, and the propositions semantically ... More


Nouns for Natural Kinds and the Problem of Arbitrariness

Mario Gómez-Torrente

in Roads to Reference: An Essay on Reference Fixing in Natural Language

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780198846277
eISBN:
9780191881404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846277.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter explains the “Kripke-Putnam orthodoxy” about the reference fixing of ordinary natural kind nouns, and some objections to it, especially “arbitrariness problems”: for example, a ... More


Variation in Natural Kind Concepts

Daniel Cohnitz and Jussi Haukioja

in Shifting Concepts: The Philosophy and Psychology of Conceptual Variability

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198803331
eISBN:
9780191841521
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198803331.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Since Kripke’s and Putnam’s work in the 1970s, most philosophers have assumed that our natural kind concepts are externally individuated. However, both psychologists and philosophers have questioned ... More


Kripke and Putnam on Natural Kind Terms *

Keith Donnellan, Joseph Almog, and Paolo Leonardi

in Essays on Reference, Language, and Mind

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199857999
eISBN:
9780190267667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199857999.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter studies the application of some of the central ideas developed by Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam concerning singular terms to general terms for kinds, showing that the theory of natural ... More


The Transcendence of The Natural-Language “Exist” When Used to Assert or Deny Ontological Commitment

Jody Azzouni

in Ontology Without Borders

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780190622558
eISBN:
9780190622589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190622558.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It’s shown that the existence concept that we express in natural languages and that we use to think about what we—philosophers and non-philosophers—take to exist in the world is ... More


Roads to Reference: An Essay on Reference Fixing in Natural Language

Mario Gómez-Torrente

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780198846277
eISBN:
9780191881404
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846277.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

How is it that words (such as “Aristotle”) come to stand for the things they stand for (such as Aristotle)? Is the thing that a word stands for, its reference, fully identified or described by ... More


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