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How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Penelope Mackie

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

What are the essential properties of ordinary individuals such as people, cats, trees, and tables? The question is notoriously difficult, yet must be answered to obtain a satisfying account of the ... More


Essentialism, Semantic Theory, and Natural Kinds

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Following Nathan Salmon and D. H. Mellor, this chapter argues that natural kind essentialism of the type advocated by Kripke and Putnam is not an inevitable consequence of the adoption of an ... More


Manifest Realism II: Why Gold is Necessarily a Yellow Metal

Robert Hanna

in Kant, Science, and Human Nature

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199285549
eISBN:
9780191713965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285549.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter aims to work out the positive theory behind Kant's surprising claim that gold is necessarily a yellow metal, using scientific essentialism only as a critical foil. It discusses Kant's ... More


Categorial Ontology and Scientific Essentialism

E. J. Lowe

in The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199254392
eISBN:
9780191603600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199254397.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The sense in which laws are necessary is reviewed. The relationship between natural laws and natural kinds is emphasized. The relationship between natural laws and causal powers is further explored, ... More


In Defense of Kinds

Kathrin Koslicki

in The Structure of Objects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539895
eISBN:
9780191716300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539895.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy

This chapter defends a commitment to an ontology of kinds for the special case of natural kinds; such a commitment plays an important role in motivating and underwriting the structure-based and ... More


Causation in a Structural World

James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, and John Collier

in Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199276196
eISBN:
9780191706127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199276196.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that the idea of causation has similar status to ideas of cohesion, forces, and things. Appreciating the role of causation in a notional world is crucial to understanding the ... More


Kinds

Lance J. Rips

in Lines of Thought: Central Concepts in Cognitive Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195183054
eISBN:
9780199865109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183054.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter grapples with the question of how seemingly objective categories like lions could have properties that extend beyond the set of their actual members. The first part looks at ... More


Concept Eliminativism

Edouard Machery

in Doing without Concepts

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter draws the conclusion of the argument developed in previous chapters: The notion of concept should be eliminated from contemporary psychology. Previous eliminativist arguments against the ... More


Doing without Concepts

Edouard Machery

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Over recent years, the psychology of concepts has been rejuvenated by new work on prototypes, inventive ideas on causal cognition, the development of neo-empiricist theories of concepts, and the ... More


LINGUISTIC WAYFARING

Mark Wilson

in Wandering Significance: An Essay on Conceptual Behaviour

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199269259
eISBN:
9780191710155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269259.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

After summarizing the key ingredients within a facade, this chapter reexamines the standard cases of philosophical puzzlement that were introduced in earlier chapters employing these structural ... More


Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Scott Soames

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In Naming and Necessity Saul Kripke undermined descriptive analyses of names by showing that names are rigid designators; thereby telling us what their meanings are not, but not what they are. In ... More


Preliminaries

Penelope Mackie

in How Things Might Have Been: Individuals, Kinds, and Essential Properties

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272204
eISBN:
9780191604034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272204.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter characterizes essentialism, and distinguishes essentialism about individuals from essentialism about natural kinds, arguing that the first does, but the second need not, involve de re ... More


Concluding Remarks

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter reviews the central arguments of this book and charts the directions for future work on dispositional essentialism, identifying the need for an account of natural kinds and for responses ... More


After the Naming Explosion: Joachim Wach’s Unfinished Project

Gregory D. Alles

in Hermeneutics, Politics, and the History of Religions: The Contested Legacies of Joachim Wach and Mircea Eliade

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394337
eISBN:
9780199777358
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394337.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter discusses Joachim Wach’s efforts in formulating typologies within the study of religions. It argues that these efforts fail not because of their ethnocentric character—although they are ... More


The Long Shadow of Metaphysics on Research Programs

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the implications of homology as a scientifically credible concept for the metaphysics of evolutionary biology, that is, the question of whether such words as “characters” can ... More


The Roots of Reference

Timothy McCarthy

in Radical Interpretation and Indeterminacy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145069
eISBN:
9780199833436
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145062.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Applies the ‘Conformal Framework’ developed in Ch. 2 to some problems of the classical theory of reference, namely, to the question of how the reference of expressions in specific problem categories, ... More


Knowledge and its Place in Nature

Hilary Kornblith

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246311
eISBN:
9780191597862
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246319.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Argues that conceptual analysis should be rejected in favour of a more naturalistic approach to epistemology. There is a robust natural phenomenon of knowledge; knowledge is a natural kind. An ... More


Toward a Resolution

Albert Casullo

in A Priori Justification

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195115055
eISBN:
9780199786190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195115058.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter contends that proponents of the a priori face two major challenges: articulating the experiential/nonexperiential distinction, and providing supporting evidence for the claim that there ... More


What Do Natural Kind Predicates Have in Common With Proper Names?

Scott Soames

in Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195145281
eISBN:
9780199833702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195145283.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

In Ch.10, it is argued that the crucial similarities between proper names and natural kind terms, including simple natural kind predicates, are the result of the nondescriptionality of such terms, ... More


THE PROPERTY THEORY, TWIN EARTH, AND BELIEF ABOUT KINDS

Neil Feit

in Belief about the Self: A Defense of the Property Theory of Content

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195341362
eISBN:
9780199866922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341362.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter considers Twin Earth cases of the sort introduced by Hilary Putnam. The goal is to present a collection of answers to various metaphysical and semantic questions raised by these cases. ... More


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