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How to Improve Bayesian Reasoning without Instruction

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter defines the concepts of natural sampling, natural frequencies, and reports experimental evidence for the impact of various external representations on statistical thinking. The mental ... More


Designing Risk Communication in Health

Stephanie Kurzenhäuser and Ulrich Hoffrage

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0130
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter explores how the representation of statistical information affects the understanding of risks and uncertainties in medical contexts. Using mammography screening as a prime example, it is ... More


How to Make Cognitive Illusions Disappear

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Cognitive illusions have been linked to perceptual illusions, suggesting that they are “inevitable illusions”. This chapter criticizes the narrow norms that make humans look irrational and shows how ... More


Technology needs psychology: how natural frequencies foster insight in medical and legal experts

Ralph Hertwig and Ulrich Hoffrage

in Etc. Frequency Processing and Cognition

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198508632
eISBN:
9780191687365
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508632.003.0018
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Modern diagnostic technologies such as cancer screening tests or forensic DNA tests confront users with a basic problem, namely that of inferring the accuracy of a diagnostic test on the basis of ... More


Modal Densities

A. Le Bot

in Foundation of Statistical Energy Analysis in Vibroacoustics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198729235
eISBN:
9780191796173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729235.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The sequences of natural frequency are exhibited for various examples in structural vibration and acoustics. The asymptotic relationships of modal densities are then derived in, respectively, ... More


HIV Screening: Helping Clinicians Make Sense of Test Results to Patients

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

HIV screening is now recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force for people aged 15–65 years. However, if clinicians do not understand the actual implications of a test result, patients may ... More


How I Got Started Teaching Physicians and Judges Risk Literacy

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Simply Rational: Decision Making in the Real World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199390076
eISBN:
9780190240684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199390076.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A personal account of how the author came to recognize the importance of statistical literacy, particularly in the fields of health care and the law, and went on to teach physicians and judges how to ... More


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