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To Elect or to Select?

Margit Tavits

in Presidents with Prime Ministers: Do Direct Elections Matter?

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199553327
eISBN:
9780191721007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199553327.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter applies alternative research methods to test the effect of direct elections on presidential activism. First, the Slovakian case offers a setting of a natural experiment because it ... More


Diversity of Cohort Studies

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.10
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The previous chapter described a prospective population cohort study as a prototype. By modifying one or another element of this prototype, this chapter constructs natural experiments, historical ... More


Evaluating environmental interventions through natural experiments

Melvyn Hillsdon

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199569298
eISBN:
9780191594427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569298.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Natural experiments occur when policy or the forces of nature conspire to produce environments where variations in exposure to health-promoting or health-damaging environments are ‘naturally’ ... More


The Performance of Democracy under Semi-Presidentialism — Country Narratives

Robert Elgie

in Semi-Presidentialism: Sub-Types And Democratic Performance

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199585984
eISBN:
9780191729003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585984.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines two natural-like experiments. It examines the case of Senegal from 2000 to 2010, where a democracy with a premier-presidential form of semi-presidentialism switched to a ... More


Using Natural Experiments in the Study of Alien Tree Invasions: Opportunities and Limitations

David M. Richardson, Mathieu Rouget, and Marcel Rejmánek

in Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520240247
eISBN:
9780520930636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520240247.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter examines the value of natural experiments for studying aspects of alien tree invasions in South Africa. It presents case studies involving species of Acacia, Hakea, Pinus, Eucalyptus, ... More


Epidemiologic Experiments: Natural and Contrived

Mervyn Susser and Zena Stein

in Eras in Epidemiology: The Evolution of Ideas

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195300666
eISBN:
9780199863754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300666.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses natural experiments and contrived experiments in epidemiology. Some epidemiologists have remained cautious about experimental intervention. Perhaps they have been deterred on ... More


Lessons from Europe

K. Henle

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Amphibians and reptiles are coming to be regarded in Europe as indicator groups for a general decline in species diversity. The decline of these groups has been well documented in Europe and on other ... More


For the good of the cause: Generating evidence to inform social policies that reduce health inequalities

Ben Barr, Clare Bambra, and Katherine Smith

in Health Inequalities: Critical Perspectives

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198703358
eISBN:
9780191772603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198703358.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A challenge facing health inequalities research is the ‘inverse evidence law’, whereby the availability of evidence tends to vary inversely with the potential impact of the intervention. This chapter ... More


Designs for large life course studies of genetic effects

Camilla Stoltenberg and Andrew Pickles

in Epidemiological Methods in Life Course Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528487
eISBN:
9780191723940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528487.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The need to investigate genetic aetiology has led to studies of an unprecedented size and cost. This chapter reviews designs, methods of genetic analysis, and some current major studies including ... More


Statistical Issues in HIV Prevention

Ron Brookmeyer

in Quantitative Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300087512
eISBN:
9780300128222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300087512.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter explores the key statistical issues that emerge in the design and analysis of HIV prevention studies. It focuses on the strengths and limitations of various study designs including ... More


Quasi-experiments and Heavy-up Experiments in Social Marketing

W. Douglas Evans

in Social Marketing Research for Global Public Health: Methods and Technologies

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199757398
eISBN:
9780190226022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757398.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Use of natural experiments and other quasi-experimentation techniques such as heavy-up studies and propensity score matching are growing outcome evaluation approaches in social marketing. Natural ... More


Understanding Media Markets in the Digital Age: Economics and Methodology

Brett Danaher, Samita Dhanasobhon, Michael D. Smith, and Rahul Telang

in Economic Analysis of the Digital Economy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226206844
eISBN:
9780226206981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226206981.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Digitization raises a variety of important academic and managerial questions around firm strategies and public policies for the content industries, with many of these questions influenced by the ... More


Confusing Correlation with Causation

Gary Smith and Jay Cordes

in The 9 Pitfalls of Data Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198844396
eISBN:
9780191879937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844396.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

There is a hierarchy of predictive value that can be extracted from data. At the top of the hierarchy are causal relationships that can be confirmed with a randomized and controlled experiment or a ... More


Why Did Finance Capitalism and the Second Industrial Revolution Arise in the 1890s?

Larry Neal and Lance E. Davis

in Financing Innovation in the United States, 1870 to the Present

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262122894
eISBN:
9780262277884
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262122894.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter suggests that it is possible to make a study using distinct natural experiments on institutional arrangements of finance on the deflationary decade of the 1890s and the subsequent gold ... More


Internal Validity

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 7 begins with an outline and description of five threats to internal validity common to time series designs: history, maturation, instrumentation, regression, and selection. Given the ... More


A statistical symphony: instrumental variables reveal causality and control measurement error

Bruce E. Kendall

in Ecological Statistics: Contemporary theory and application

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199672547
eISBN:
9780191796487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672547.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Ecologists are increasingly using non-experimental data—both “natural experiments” and observational data from monitoring programs—to address questions that cannot be addressed in controlled ... More


Self-Employment and Voluntary Work

Bruno S. Frey

in Happiness: A Revolution in Economics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262062770
eISBN:
9780262273213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262062770.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter explores two areas in which individual happiness is systematically affected by specific features of work. It considers why self-employed individuals tend to be happier than those ... More


What Works in Reducing Re-Offending?

Aurélie Ouss

in Lessons from the Economics of Crime: What Reduces Offending?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019613
eISBN:
9780262314633
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019613.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This paper reviews both theoretical and empirical studies on reoffending, and suggests productive directions for future research. Understanding the behavior of repeat o?enders is of paramount ... More


Progress in Tackling Beveridge’s Five Giants: The Successes and Limitations of Social Reform

Anthony F. Heath, Elisabeth Garratt, Ridhi Kashyap, Yaojun Li, and Lindsay Richards

in Social Progress in Britain

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198805489
eISBN:
9780191843556
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805489.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

The concluding chapter of the book summarizes the evidence about social progress in Britain, and the extent to which Britain has been successful in tackling Beveridge’s five giants. It shows how ... More


Internal Threat II: Will Students Keep Coming?

Robert B. Archibald

in The Road Ahead for America's Colleges and Universities

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190251918
eISBN:
9780190251949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190251918.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Demographic trends and changes in the perceived value of a degree both can have significant effects on the demand for higher education. Demographic changes in the United States are unlikely to reduce ... More


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