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Natural Evil, Nomic Regularity, and Animal Suffering

Michael J. Murray

in Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199237272
eISBN:
9780191717291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237272.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter and the next explore explanations of animal suffering in which the overriding goods arising from the permission of animal suffering do not accrue to animals themselves. The most common ... More


WHY GOD ALLOWS EVIL

Richard Swinburne

in Is There a God?

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780198235446
eISBN:
9780191705618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198235446.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

God may be expected to give humans significant responsibility for themselves and each other (including responsibility for forming their own characters). This involves allowing them to do significant ... More


Evolution and Evil: The Difference Darwinism Makes in Theology and Spirituality

Jeff Astley

in Reading Genesis after Darwin

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195383355
eISBN:
9780199870561
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383355.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies, History of Christianity

Despite the complacent reaction of many theologians, Darwinism remains a dangerous idea for any religion that embraces a doctrine of creation. In particular, the evolutionary perspective—especially ... More


Health and Suffering

Abdulaziz Sachedina

in Islamic Biomedical Ethics Principles and Application

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195378504
eISBN:
9780199869688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378504.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Islam

Muslims, like other peoples of faith, have struggled to reconcile God‘s omnipotence with the persistent evils of the world, including the pain and suffering that attend illness. This chapter treats ... More


The Global Argument Continued

Peter van Inwagen

in The Problem of Evil: The Gifford Lectures delivered in the University of St Andrews in 2003

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199245604
eISBN:
9780191715310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199245604.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The chapter begins with an examination of three philosophical theses about free will, each of which would, if true, refute Theist's attempt to reply to the argument from evil by employing the ... More


God, Evil, and the Metaphysics of Freedom

Alvin Plantinga

in The Nature of Necessity

Published in print:
1978
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244141
eISBN:
9780191598241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244142.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 9 is the first of two chapters that apply the findings of the previous eight chapters of The Nature of Necessity to some traditional problems in natural theology. The Problem of Evil is the ... More


The Problem of Evil

Robert Audi

in Rationality and Religious Commitment

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199609574
eISBN:
9780191731822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609574.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How is evil—and so much of it—possible if God, as conceived in classical theism, is sovereign in the universe? This chapter explains how moral evil (wrongdoing) can occur under God—given human ... More


The Alienation of the Creator

Paul S. Fiddes

in The Creative Suffering of God

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198263470
eISBN:
9780191682568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198263470.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter examines the argument from the nature of creaturely existence, one of the two main routes which theologians have taken to arrive at the idea of a hostile non-being which people and God ... More


An Open Theist Theodicy of Natural Evil

William Hasker

in Molinism: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590629
eISBN:
9780191731280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590629.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter sets forth a theodicy of natural evil. General characteristics of theodicy are discussed, including the distinction between general‐policy theodicies and specific-benefit theodicies. ... More


Natural Evil and the Scope for Response

Richard Swinburne

in Providence and the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237983
eISBN:
9780191598548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237987.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The ‘higher‐order goods’ defence claims that natural evils (bad states caused by processes over which humans have no control) give humans the opportunity to react to them in the right way by actions, ... More


Evil

Dominic J. O'Meara

in Plotinus: An Introduction to the Enneads

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198751472
eISBN:
9780191598128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198751478.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

Plotinus identifies matter as absolute evil and as the principle of (secondary) evil – i.e. natural evil and moral evil (vice). This much‐disputed theory of evil is presented in its main lines, as ... More


Natural Evil and the Possibility of Knowledge

Richard Swinburne

in Providence and the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237983
eISBN:
9780191598548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237987.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

The opportunity to study natural processes that produce good and bad effects gives humans the opportunity to acquire knowledge of how to produce good and bad effects themselves, and thus to make the ... More


The Evidential Weight of Social Evil

Joseph Corabi

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 8

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198806967
eISBN:
9780191844461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806967.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Social evil—pain and suffering caused by game-theoretic interactions among agents—has recently received attention as a newly recognized and potentially problematic kind of evidence against theism. ... More


Evil, Natural Science, and Animal Suffering

Eric Martin and Eric Watkins

in Evil: A History

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter investigates how historical developments within the natural sciences—specifically, the emergence of mathematical physics in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and of evolutionary ... More


Social Evil ∗

Ted Poston

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 5

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780198704768
eISBN:
9780191774300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198704768.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Social evil is any pain or suffering brought about by game-theoretic interactions of many individuals. This chapter introduces and discusses social evil. It begins with social evil brought about by ... More


The Problem of Evil

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239635
eISBN:
9780191598609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239637.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

It is a good thing that humans should have the opportunity to choose freely between good and evil; and hence the “free will” defence to “moral evil”, that God has reason to allow such evil. There are ... More


Leibniz and Theodicy: Evil as the Good

Gavin Rae

in Evil in the Western Philosophical Tradition

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781474445320
eISBN:
9781474465205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474445320.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter takes up Leibniz’s theodicy to show that while he agrees with Descartes that God’s creation is linked to His will, Leibniz claims that God’s will is an effect of His knowledge. This is ... More


Animal Suffering—Philosophical Responses

Nicola Hoggard Creegan

in Animal Suffering and the Problem of Evil

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199931842
eISBN:
9780199345762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931842.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The chapter examines philosophical approaches to the problem of evil. The philosophical arguments for the existence of God, given the presence of evolutionary evil and suffering, can in some sense be ... More


Evil: A History

Andrew P. Chignell (ed.)

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

What, if anything, is evil? Is it just badness by another name? Is it the shadow side of good, or is it an active force opposed to the good in a Manichean/Star Wars kind of way? Does evil have its ... More


Evil, Unintelligibility, Radicality: Footnotes to a Correspondence Between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers

Andrew Chignell

in Evil: A History

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199915453
eISBN:
9780190248383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199915453.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter articulates two concerns that Karl Jaspers raised (with Hannah Arendt) about the common practice of viewing moral evil as unintelligible. The first is that this involves exoticizing the ... More


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