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Political Parties in Costa Rica: Democratic Stability and Party System Change in a Latin American Context

John A. Booth

in Party Politics in New Democracies

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199289653
eISBN:
9780191710964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199289653.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Arising from the 1948 Costa Rican civil war, a multiparty system developed in Costa Rica under a social democratic National Liberation Party (PLN) that dominated the polity for decades. Small ... More


Rebirth of the Palestinian National Movement

Yezid Sayigh

in Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198296430
eISBN:
9780191685224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198296430.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Arab Nationalists Movement (ANM) and the Palestinian National Liberation Movement were the most influential of the many clandestine groups that emerged among the scattered Palestinian communities in ... More


Conclusion

Roman Szporluk

in Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195051032
eISBN:
9780199854417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051032.003.0014
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The ideas of Marx and List impacted on the revolutionary period in Russia. The events of that period marked a turning point in the history of socialism, Marxism, and the international labor movement. ... More


Jabotinsky's Use of National Myths in Political Struggles

Ezra Mendelsohn

in Studies in Contemporary Jewry: XII: Literary Strategies: Jewish Texts and Contexts

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195112030
eISBN:
9780199854608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195112030.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Religion

This chapter focuses on the discussion of the role of political romanticism and national myths in Jabotinsky's youthful weltanschauung (before he became the leader of a political movement), and his ... More


1848 in European Collective Memory

Robert Gildea

in The Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199249978
eISBN:
9780191697852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199249978.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter explores the ways in which the revolutions of 1848 have been remembered, ways which have been formed around the celebration of key anniversaries. The first myth constructed around the ... More


Wars of National Liberation and Humanitarian Law *

Antonio Cassese

in The Human Dimension of International Law: Selected Papers of Antonio Cassese

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199232918
eISBN:
9780191696572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232918.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

It is common knowledge that as soon as the upsurge of national independence started in colonial territories in the early 1950s, liberation movements attempted to blow up the traditional distinction ... More


Terrorism in Customary International Law

Ben Saul

in Defining Terrorism in International Law

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199535477
eISBN:
9780191712197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535477.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter confirms that there is no generic international crime, or distinct legal concept, of terrorism. It discusses how early attempts in the General Assembly to define terrorism were ... More


Non-State Actors in Times of Armed Conflict

ANDREW CLAPHAM

in Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199288465
eISBN:
9780191707681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288465.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter distinguishes rebels, insurgents, belligerents, and national liberation movements, and explains the different sets of legal obligations that apply. It explores the ways in which rebels ... More


Marx and Germany: The “List Critique”

Roman Szporluk

in Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195051032
eISBN:
9780199854417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051032.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The chapter discusses Marx's views on competition when it came to Germany's future. Marx perceived nationalism as a bourgeois ideology. He thought that the “List Critique” served as a spokesman for ... More


The Algerian Civil War and the 1977 Protocols Additional

Helen M. Kinsella

in The Image before the Weapon: A Critical History of the Distinction between Combatant and Civilian

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449031
eISBN:
9780801460784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449031.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter discusses another treaty of the laws of war influential to the principle of distinction: the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Conventions. In this case, the conduct of the wars of ... More


Introduction: Liberalism, Human Rights, Terrorism and Neo-Conservatism

Tom Farer

in Confronting Global Terrorism and American Neo-Conservatism: The Framework of a Liberal Grand Strategy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199534722
eISBN:
9780191715891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534722.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the war on terrorism and how it managed to link a cluster of policy issues that were previously more loosely connected. The proper definition of ... More


The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Wars of National Liberation *

Detlev F. Vagts and Theodor Meron

in Humanizing the Laws of War: Selected Writings of Richard Baxter

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680252
eISBN:
9780191760181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680252.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The discussions that have taken place in recent years in the UN General Assembly, in the two Conferences of Government Experts on the Humanitarian Law of War, and in other bodies demonstrate that ... More


Humanitarian Law or Humanitarian Politics? The 1974 Diplomatic Conference on Humanitarian Law *

Detlev F. Vagts, Theodor Meron, Stephen M. Schwebel, and Charles Keever

in Humanizing the Laws of War: Selected Writings of Richard Baxter

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680252
eISBN:
9780191760181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680252.003.0017
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter describes the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts, the first session of which met in Geneva from ... More


Back to the Motherland: Ola Rotimi's The Gods Are Not To Blame

Barbara Goff and Michael Simpson

in Crossroads in the Black Aegean: Oedipus, Antigone, and Dramas of the African Diaspora

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199217182
eISBN:
9780191712388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217182.003.0003
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

This chapter reads Ola Rotimi's The Gods are Not to Blame as an allegory of colonization and decolonization and revises the established reading of the play as a representation of the Nigerian Civil ... More


The Vietnamese in America

Robert D. Schulzinger

in A Time for Peace: The Legacy of the Vietnam War

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195365924
eISBN:
9780199851966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365924.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

As the People's Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) and National Liberation Front (NLF) fighters tightened their ring around Saigon in April 1975, tens of thousands of Vietnamese who had worked for the ... More


Political Intervention and the Struggle for National Unity and Liberation

Malek Khouri

in The Arab National Project in Youssef Chahine's Cinema

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789774163548
eISBN:
9781617970153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774163548.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

Arab's cinematic first serious attempt to tackle the issue of the anticolonial struggle came in 1958 by way of a film that told the story of a real-life Algerian resistance fighter who had been ... More


Chiapas: The Role of the Maya in the Worldview of the Zapatista Insurgency

John D. Early

in Maya and Catholic Cultures in Crisis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780813040134
eISBN:
9780813043838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813040134.003.0020
Subject:
Society and Culture, Social Groups

This chapter examines some events leading up to the Chiapas insurgency and church's role in them. It examines the corruption of the Mexican government and its Partido Revolucionario Institucional. In ... More


The New IRA, 1925–1929

Richard English

in Radicals and the Republic: Socialist Republicanism in the Irish Free State 1925-1937

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198202899
eISBN:
9780191675577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202899.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Political History

This chapter examines the evolution of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the period from 1925 to 1929. Major changes in the IRA came after the General Army Convention held in Dalkey, County ... More


North Vietnamese Policy under the American Threat

Gareth Porter

in Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to War in Vietnam

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520239487
eISBN:
9780520940406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520239487.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter reviews the role of the global and regional balance of power in the evolution of North Vietnam's strategy in the South from 1954–1965. It illustrates how North Vietnamese concern about ... More


Modernizing the Law of War * **

Detlev F. Vagts and Theodor Meron

in Humanizing the Laws of War: Selected Writings of Richard Baxter

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680252
eISBN:
9780191760181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680252.003.0020
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter discusses the modernization of the law of war. At the outset, when the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) were seeking out inadequacies in the ... More


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