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The National Physical Laboratory

Eileen Magnello

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter details the establishment of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The NPL is one of the world's great national standards laboratories. In his presidential address to the British ... More


The origins and development of the ACE project

B. Jack Copeland

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter details the history of the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) project. The story of the ACE begins with John Womersley's appointment as superintendent of the newly created Mathematics ... More


The creation of the NPL Mathematics Division

Mary Croarken

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

In April 1945, the journal Nature announced that the National Physical Laboratory would ‘extend its activities by the establishment of a Mathematics Division’. The new Mathematics Division was ... More


The atomic nursery

Sean F. Johnston

in The Neutron's Children: Nuclear Engineers and the Shaping of Identity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692118
eISBN:
9780191740732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692118.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

If the war gestated atomic energy specialists, then the decade after it saw their birth and early development in special environments. They did not thrive unaided: the new experts were nurtured with ... More


Proposed electronic calculator (1945)

Alan M. Turing

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0021
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents Alan M. Turing's report, ‘Proposed Electronic Calculator’. The report was submitted to the Executive Committee of the National Physical Laboratory in February 1946, under the ... More


Supreme position in British physics: The National Physical Laboratory and Cambridge, 1937–9

Graeme K. Hunter

in Light is a Messenger: The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198529217
eISBN:
9780191712937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529217.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Bragg took up the position of Director of the National Physical Laboratory in November 1937, succeeding Joseph Petavel. He was not the NPL's first choice for the job; with his very limited experience ... More


Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Lillian Hoddeson, Adrienne W. Kolb, and Catherine Westfall

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located in the western suburbs of Chicago, has stood at the frontier of high-energy physics for forty years. This book is the first history of this laboratory ... More


The Berkeley Design, 1963–1965

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the history of the design proposal of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for the Fermilab. It describes the proposals formulated by Edward Lofgren and Edwin McMillan. ... More


Wilson's Vision

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses Robert R. Wilson's vision for the National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois. It explains that Wilson's aesthetics called for clean, bold, frugal, and functional components, ... More


The Stevenson-Wydler Act of 1980

Dennis Patrick Leyden and Albert N. Link

in Public Sector Entrepreneurship: U.S. Technology and Innovation Policy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199313853
eISBN:
9780190220976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199313853.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter argues that the Stevenson-Wydler Act of 1980, which calls for federal government laboratories to actively promote technology transfer to the private sector for commercialization ... More


Midwest Passage, 1965–1967

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses the controversy and cost issue during the period from 1965 to 1967 that gradually loosened Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's control for the Fermilab project. It discusses ... More


An Atomic-Age Experiment Station

Helen Anne Curry

in Evolution Made to Order: Plant Breeding and Technological Innovation in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226390086
eISBN:
9780226390116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390116.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In 1948 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station jointly agreed to the creation of a novel research institution on the grounds of the Oak Ridge National ... More


The Several Hundred GeV Accelerator, 1959–1963

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the history of Fermilab from 1959 to 1963. It suggests that Fermilab was inspired by the development of the alternating-gradient principle and by the fact discussions about ... More


Lederman's Vision

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0010
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the leadership of Leon M. Lederman as director of the Fermilab. It provides a biographical background of Lederman and describes his leadership style. Like Robert R. Wilson, ... More


A Users' Paradise, 1968–1978

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses Robert R. Wilson's vision for the National Accelerator Laboratory to become a user's paradise. His vision called for a balance of responsibilities that Wilson envisioned ... More


Radiation Revisited

Helen Anne Curry

in Evolution Made to Order: Plant Breeding and Technological Innovation in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226390086
eISBN:
9780226390116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390116.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

After World War II, the increased availability of radioisotopes, nuclear reactors, and other radiation-generating technologies associated with the production and study of nuclear energy—and the ... More


US Nuclear Tests, the Environment, and Medical Research: Case Studies of the Rongelapese and Utirikese

Martha Smith-Norris

in Domination and Resistance: The United States and the Marshall Islands during the Cold War

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824847623
eISBN:
9780824869014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824847623.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

Chapter Three focusses on the human and ecological consequences of American Cold War policies on the Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. In particular, it concentrates on the effects of the 1954 Bravo ... More


Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book explores the conception, design, construction, use, and afterlife of ENIAC, the first general purpose digital electronic computer. ENIAC was created and tested at the University of ... More


Beyond the Horizon: The Energy Doubler, 1967–1978

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the history of the conceptualization and construction of the Energy Doubler at the National Accelerator Laboratory. Robert R. Wilson conceived a plan using the phenomenon of ... More


Constructing the Ring, 1968–1972

in Fermilab: Physics, the Frontier, and Megascience

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226346236
eISBN:
9780226346250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226346250.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the history of the construction of the accelerator rings of the National Accelerator Laboratory during the period 1968 to 1972. It explains that while Berkeley designers ... More


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