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How Commercial Bankers Discovered Consumer Credit: The Federal Housing Administration and Personal Loan Departments, 1934–1938

Louis Hyman

in Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691140681
eISBN:
9781400838400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691140681.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on personal loan departments. On May 4, 1928, National City Bank opened the nation's first personal loan department. Curiously, despite the popularity of the department and ... More


Banking in Germany, 1918–1939

Gerd Hardach

in Banking, Currency, and Finance in Europe Between the Wars

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198288039
eISBN:
9780191596230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198288034.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Economic History

The focus of this chapter is not on the short‐term fluctuations experienced by the German banks during the inter‐war period, but on the structural change that ultimately resulted in the formation of ... More


Civil War Finance and the American State

Samuel DeCanio

in Democracy and the Origins of the American Regulatory State

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300198782
eISBN:
9780300216318
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300198782.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter examines the influence of Civil War finance policy on American state formation. More specifically, it considers the two financial instruments used by the Treasury Department to fund the ... More


The Evolution of Bank Boards of Directors in New York, 1840–1950

Howard Bodenhorn and Eugene N. White

in Enterprising America: Businesses, Banks, and Credit Markets in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226261621
eISBN:
9780226261768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261768.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Contemporary bank governance is criticized for manager-dominated (insider) boards of directors; but this was also a characteristic of early nineteenth century banks, where the roles of president and ... More


Francs, Banks, and Gold: Britain and the Swiss Financial Market

NEVILLE WYLIE

in Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198206903
eISBN:
9780191717338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206903.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, European Modern History

This chapter examines British and U.S. efforts to put a stop to Swiss purchases of German gold and limit the financial and technical support given to its enemies by the Swiss banking sector. In both ... More


The Compromise of 1816

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter chronicles the events that led to, and the constitutional claim that underwrote, the Republican majority’s revival of a national bank in 1816. The conventional wisdom surrounding this ... More


“The Great Regulating Wheel” and Institutional Conversion

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter examines the second of two changes within the Bank of the United States that would have downstream consequences for the debate over its constitutionality: its conversion from a purely ... More


“Banco Mania” and Institutional Drift

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter examines the first of two changes within the Bank of the United States that would have downstream consequences for the debate over its constitutionality: its drift from a position of ... More


Assessing America's Early Banks

Howard Bodenhorn

in State Banking in Early America: A New Economic History

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195147766
eISBN:
9780199832910
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147766.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Early American banking grew in accordance with overall economic growth. The one exception was the early 1830s, when a speculative wave poured over the U.S. and the banking sector grew more rapidly ... More


The Trials of Post-Soviet Central Bankers

Juliet Johnson

in Priests of Prosperity: How Central Bankers Transformed the Postcommunist World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9781501700224
eISBN:
9781501703751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501700224.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter explores the intensive transformation of the Bank of Russia and the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic (NBKR). As the central bank of the largest, the wealthiest, and the most ... More


“Too Big to Fail” before the Fed

Gary B. Gorton and Ellis W. Tallman

in Fighting Financial Crises: Learning from the Past

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226479514
eISBN:
9780226479651
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226479651.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The clearing house also engaged in bailouts of large member banks during crises. This policy of “too-big-to-fail” was entirely voluntary and created a risk exposure for the clearing house membership. ... More


More than a Constitutional Rerun

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter addresses an oft-ignored episode in the national bank controversy: the recharter debate of 1811. The charter granted in 1791 ran for twenty years, and this left members of the Eleventh ... More


Carter Glass: 1858–1946: Unreconstructed Rebel

Edward Morris

in Wall Streeters: The Creators and Corruptors of American Finance

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231170543
eISBN:
9780231540506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231170543.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History

The chapter describes Congressman Carter Glass’s unexpected role in passing legislation to form a central bank.


Varieties of Strict Interpretation

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter offers a reexamination of the 1791 debates within Congress and the executive branch over Alexander Hamilton’s national bank bill. It jettisons a key feature of the traditional narrative ... More


A Tale of Two Clauses

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter reexamines the closing episode in the national bank controversy: President Jackson’s extended assault upon the institution (1829-1832). The traditional narrative respecting the ... More


The Politics of European Integration

Juliet Johnson

in Priests of Prosperity: How Central Bankers Transformed the Postcommunist World

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9781501700224
eISBN:
9781501703751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9781501700224.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter analyzes the Hungarian, Czech, and Slovak central banks in depth, tracing their extensive transformations and surprising difficulties with internalization in the context of the European ... More


Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Eric Lomazoff

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This book provides a revisionist history of the constitutional controversy over a national bank (1791-1832), and uses that history to reinforce and refine broader propositions respecting American ... More


Contested Terrain: P. W. Chavers, Anthony Overton, and the Founding of the Douglass National Bank

Robert E. Weems Jr.

in Building the Black Metropolis: African American Entrepreneurship in Chicago

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780252041426
eISBN:
9780252050022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252041426.003.0005
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines the “contested terrain” associated with the founding of Chicago’s Douglass National Bank in 1921. Anthony Overton, one of history’s most prominent African American ... More


McCulloch (1819) in the Shadow of the Compromise

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter offers a reassessment of the Supreme Court’s work in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) in light of the previous chapter’s claim that Republicans revived the national bank on the strength of ... More


Getting the Ship out of the Bottle

Eric Lomazoff

in Reconstructing the National Bank Controversy: Politics and Law in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226579313
eISBN:
9780226579597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226579597.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter presents an overview of the book’s central arguments. The conventional wisdom surrounding the national bank controversy – namely that it was a recurring two-sided struggle over the ... More


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