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Pathology of demyelinated and dysmyelinated axons

JACK ROSENBLUTH

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Glial cells exert a reciprocal influence on axons, affecting both structure and function in ways that have important physiological consequences. The functional abnormalities associated with myelin ... More


Factors Controlling Myelin Formation

Lynn D. Hudson

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on the emerging checkpoints in myelin formation. Topics discussed include transcriptional controls exerted on the specification and differentiation of myelin-forming cells, ... More


Morphology of central nervous system axons

ASAO HIRANO and JOSEFINA F. LLENA

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses the fundamental structure of the normal central myelinated axons, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Topics covered include the relationship between myelin and ... More


Molecular biology of myelination

EDWIN S. MONUKI and GREG LEMKE

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter considers illustrative examples of the structural and regulatory molecules involved in myelination. Topics discussed include the myelin sheath, the molecules of the myelin sheath, ... More


Auditory Evoked Responses

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

An auditory stimulus can be used to study the peripheral and central hearing apparatus. In addition to neurologic evaluation, it can also be used to evaluate peripheral (conductive and sensorimotor) ... More


A Neurological Framework

Mary Coleman

in The Neurology of Autism

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182224
eISBN:
9780199786701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182224.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter examines the components of the impaired neural networks that might underlie the presentation of autistic symptoms. Topics covered include the neural network models of autism, central ... More


Molecular Biology of Myelination

Anthony T. Campagnoni

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter presents a brief overview of the molecular biology of the myelin protein genes and their expression into mRNA and protein. Topics discussed include classic myelin basic proteins and ... More


Myelin Function and Saltatory Conduction

Stephen G. Waxman and Lakshmi Bangalore

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0021
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The need for rapid conduction of the nerve impulse serves as a driving force that can determine and increase animal size. For an axon without myelin, the speed of impulse conduction is proportional ... More


Neurological Mouse Mutants: A Molecular-Genetic Analysis of Myelin Proteins

Klaus-Armin Nave and Ueli Suter

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0043
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter presents an overview of mutations in the mouse that have improved our understanding of structural myelin proteins. Mouse genetics, in combination with molecular cell biology and ... More


Peripheral Neuropathy and the Schwann Cell

Rita M. Cowell and James W. Russell

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0046
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The Schwann cell (SC) is the sole source of myelin for peripheral nerves. During axon growth in development, SC precursors proliferate and migrate to the axon, establishing a 1:1 myelinating ... More


Spinal Cord Injury Pathology Differs with Injury Type, Age, and Exercise

Monica M. Siegenthaler and Hans S. Keirstead

in From Development to Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195369007
eISBN:
9780199865253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369007.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter shows that type of injury, age at time of injury, and physical activity may dictate differing therapies for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Current therapies aimed at ... More


Glial cell transplantation and the repair of demyelinating lesions

William F. Blakemore, Robin J.M. Franklin, and Mark Noble

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Gliotoxin-induced demyelination and myelin-deficient animals are experimental models that have been used to demonstrate that host axons can be myelinated by transplanted cells of the oligodendrocyte ... More


The Schwann cell lineage: embryonic and early postnatal development

H.J.S. Stewart, R. Mirsky, and K.R. Jessen

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter examines recent work on Schwann cell development. It discusses how Neu differentiation factor (NDF) might regulate entry of neural crest cells to the glial lineage, describes the ... More


Axonal control of oligodendrocyte development

B.A. Barres and M.C. Raff

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

The only known function of oligodendrocytes is to myelinate axons in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). This chapter considers how the number of oligodendrocytes is matched during ... More


Speculations on myelin sheath evolution

D.R. Colman, J.P. Doyle, D. D'Urso, K. Kitagawa, L. Pedraza, M. Yoshida, and A.M. Fannon

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter reviews studies on myelin sheath evolution. These suggest that members of well-studied gene superfamilies whose products are known to function as cell-cell recognition/adhesion molecules ... More


Control of myelin gene expression

Lynn D. Hudson, Nerissa Ko, and Jin G. Kim

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter focuses on the most recent efforts on the transcription front to unravel the means by which glial cells achieve their wraps. It begins with an overview of the coordinate control of ... More


Myelin-specific genes and their mutations in the mouse

Klaus-Armin Nave

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Myelination depends on the co-ordinate expression of a battery of structural proteins which are responsible for the architecture of compacted myelin. Mutations of myelin genes illustrate how ... More


Electrophysiology of squid Schwann cells

N. Joan Abbott, E. R. Brown, Y. Pichon, and Fumio Kukita

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0133
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

Schwann cells are the class of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system associated with axons. The myelin-forming Schwann cells of large-diameter vertebrate axons have a clear physiological ... More


Inflammatory demyelination and axonopathy in the central nervous system

M. L. Cuzner and M. N. Woodroofe

in Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Nervous System

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198509806
eISBN:
9780191724596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509806.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter examines axonopathy and inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). It explains that CNS inflammation in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is induced ... More


The biology of postpartum psychosis: A hypothetical model

Paola Dazzan

in Perinatal Psychiatry: The legacy of Channi Kumar

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199676859
eISBN:
9780191918346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199676859.003.0026
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Psychiatry

I had the pleasure of meeting Channi Kumar as a junior psychiatry trainee at the Maudsley Hospital, when I elected to work in his clinical service as part ... More


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