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Unifying Pension Schemes in Japan: Toward a Single Scheme for Both Civil Servants and Private Employees

Junichi Sakamoto

in The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199573349
eISBN:
9780191721946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573349.003.0011
Subject:
Business and Management, Public Management, Pensions and Pension Management

A topic of long-standing discussion in Japan has been how to equitably merge the retirement plans for civil servants and private employees, which in the past have been managed separately. Recent ... More


Patronage: Emulation for the Working Class

Carol E. Harrison

in The Bourgeois Citizen in Nineteenth-Century France: Gender, Sociability, and the Uses of Emulation

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207771
eISBN:
9780191677793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207771.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter examines the bourgeois claim to be a universal class, open to all men of appropriate character, by looking at the bourgeois patronage of ... More


Mutualism

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses how some believed in the importance of cooperation or mutual aid in evolutionary progress during the 19th century. The best-known works on mutualism emerged from two sometimes ... More


Citizen and State, 1949–1991: Participation, Perception, and Pluralism

Geoffrey Finlayson

in Citizen, State, and Social Welfare in Britain 1830–1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198227601
eISBN:
9780191678752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227601.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter examines the role of participation, perception, and pluralism in the relations between citizen, state, and social welfare in Great Britain during the period from 1949 to 1991. During ... More


Labour, charity and voluntary action: The myth of hostility

Nicholas Deakin and Justin Davis Smith

in The Ages of Voluntarism: How we got to the Big Society

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264829
eISBN:
9780191754036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264829.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter overturns the simplistic characterisation of the twentieth-century Labour party as antagonistic to voluntarism. As it sets out, while opposition to voluntarism has indeed been a theme ... More


Malthus or Mutualism?: Huxley, Kropotkin, and the Moral Meaning of Darwinism

Piers J. Hale

in Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226108490
eISBN:
9780226108520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226108520.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In ‘The Struggle for Existence’ (1888) Huxley portrayed nature as a Malthusian gladiators arena in which only the strong survived. While this was the context from which humans had evolved, mankind ... More


Widow (or, the Virtue of Leadership)

Gail Hershatter

in The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China's Collective Past

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520267701
eISBN:
9780520950344
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520267701.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter examines how Chinese village women campaigned and embodied state initiatives in a localized, even personalized way. It describes the situation of women against the backdrop of the ... More


“We Are Not Powerless, China’s Affairs Are Not Hopeless”

Shakhar Rahav

in The Rise of Political Intellectuals in Modern China: May Fourth Societies and the Roots of Mass-party Politics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199382262
eISBN:
9780190238971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199382262.003.0003
Subject:
History, Asian History, Political History

This chapter presents the circumstances and motivations that led Yun Daiying to found The Mutual Aid Society (Huzhu she). Although cultural-political societies are often mentioned as the seedbed of ... More


Conclusion

Geoffrey Finlayson

in Citizen, State, and Social Welfare in Britain 1830–1990

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198227601
eISBN:
9780191678752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227601.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This concluding chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the role of voluntarism to social welfare in Great Britain from 1830 to 1991. It suggests that the strengths of the voluntary sector ... More


Fraternity and solidarity

Paul Spicker

in Liberty, equality, fraternity

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861348418
eISBN:
9781447302704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861348418.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter discusses the concept of fraternity and the concept of solidarity. It looks especially at their relationship and differences. Fraternity is based on the idea that people have ... More


Rural Southerners and the Community of Memory

MELISSA WALKER

in Southern Farmers and Their Stories: Memory and Meaning in Oral History

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813124094
eISBN:
9780813134789
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813124094.003.0003
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter examines the experiences of rural people in the American South as they relate to the rural transformation and discusses their community of shared memory. It analyses the stories of ... More


Peter Kropotkin: Anarchist, Revolutionary, Dreamer

Oren Harman

in Dreamers, Visionaries, and Revolutionaries in the Life Sciences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780226569871
eISBN:
9780226570075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226570075.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Evolution is a game of survival of the fittest, and to survive, organisms have to compete. But does competition always lead to a struggle between and within species, or can it also lead to ... More


Out with the Old, in with the New

Ruth Kinna

in Kropotkin: Reviewing the Classical Anarchist Tradition

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780748642298
eISBN:
9781474418690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642298.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter outlines the idea of 'classical anarchism'. It presents a historiography of anarchism to illustrate the ways that assessments of Kropotkin's work have helped shape and articulate the ... More


The inclusive society

Paul Spicker

in Liberty, equality, fraternity

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861348418
eISBN:
9781447302704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861348418.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Solidarity is strongly identified with actions beyond the scope of government — including domestic, voluntary, charitable and altruistic behaviour. Its practical purposes include a model of ... More


Introduction: Altruism from Afar

Ann Swidler and Susan Cotts Watkins

in A Fraught Embrace: The Romance and Reality of AIDS Altruism in Africa

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691173924
eISBN:
9781400884988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691173924.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This introductory chapter examines the imaginations as well as the practical concerns of the actors in the drama of AIDS as it has played out in Malawi: altruists' visions of transforming the lives ... More


Resistance

Michael Innis-Jiménez

in Steel Barrio: The Great Mexican Migration to South Chicago, 1915-1940

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814785850
eISBN:
9780814760437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814785850.003.0007
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter examines the various acts of negotiation and resistance in the everyday lives of Mexican immigrants in South Chicago and the surrounding Mexican communities. It explains how Mexicans in ... More


Cuban Cigar Makers in Havana, Key West, and Ybor City, 1850s–1890s: A Single Universe?

Evan Matthew Daniel

in In Defiance of Boundaries: Anarchism in Latin American History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780813061108
eISBN:
9780813051383
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813061108.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter underscores both the unity and diversity of the various nodes that made up the transnational network of tobacco workers and anarchist activists in Cuba and Florida in the second half of ... More


Did They Jump?: Labor Organizations, Mutual-Aid Societies, and Ethnic Businesses

Louis Corsino

in The Neighborhood Outfit: Organized Crime in Chicago Heights

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038716
eISBN:
9780252096662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038716.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

For the greater part of the last century, Chicago Heights Italians found themselves on the wrong end of the cultural, political, and economic hierarchy in the city. This position made it extremely ... More


Slave Kings and Black Brotherhoods in the Atlantic World

Jeroen Dewulf

in The Pinkster King and the King of Kongo: The Forgotten History of America's Dutch-Owned Slaves

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781496808813
eISBN:
9781496808851
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496808813.003.0005
Subject:
History, African-American History

The fourth chapter serves to demonstrate how African American Pinkster celebrations in North America can be traced back to performance traditions that had developed in the context of Afro-Catholic ... More


Anarchism: Utopian and Scientific

Ruth Kinna

in Kropotkin: Reviewing the Classical Anarchist Tradition

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780748642298
eISBN:
9781474418690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748642298.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter examines Kropotkin's utopianism and shows how his concern with anarchist organisation reflected his understanding of the role of ideas in advancing revolutionary change and the need to ... More


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