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It really is true

Louis A. Girifalco

in The Universal Force: Gravity - Creator of Worlds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228966
eISBN:
9780191711183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228966.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The results of the special theory of relativity are so peculiar that a huge number of experiments have been done to check its validity. The contraction of space, the slowing down of time, and the ... More


Nuclear fusion reactions

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter discusses nuclear fusion reactions. The concepts of reaction cross-section and of Maxwell-averaged reactivity are defined, and the standard parametrization of these two important ... More


Forces of Nature

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A remarkable result of modern science has been to show that not only all forms of matter can be ascribed to a few fundamental elements, but also all natural phenomena, in their variety and ... More


Telescopes Aimed at Zeptospace

Gian Francesco Giudice

in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199581917
eISBN:
9780191723001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The detectors are the instruments used to register the particles produced in the proton collisions and to reconstruct their tracks. This chapter describes the two main detectors employed at the LHC: ... More


Colliders

E. J. N. Wilson

in An Introduction to Particle Accelerators

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198508298
eISBN:
9780191706363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508298.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The first colliders were built at Stanford and at Novosibirsk. Electrons circulated in two rings colliding where they touched. Single ring colliders circulated electrons and positrons in opposite ... More


Hydrogen in metals

Rolf Hempelmann

in Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Solid State Diffusion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198517436
eISBN:
9780191706974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198517436.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on special classes of materials. For QENS studies metal/hydrogen systems are particularly suited due to the huge incoherent scattering cross section of H, low concentrated ... More


Parallel Realms

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Electrons, their “brothers” neutrinos, and the quarks we are made of are a family. For each of these particles there exists two “copies” in Nature, two extra families. The first novel character in ... More


A Parenthesis on “R2QFTs” ⋆⋆

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Renormalizable Relativistic Quantum Field Theories (R2QFTs) are theories In which a few parameters must be taken from observations but otherwise make predictions on the phenomena they describe. The ... More


Back to the Twins

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A very detailed discussion on the Twin Paradox and its resolution(s). How science may be difficult for the (pioneering) scientists. Muons as the optimal clocks. Is the relativistic time dilation due ... More


Experimental methods: Spectroscopic

Vladimir Z. Kresin, Hans Morawitz, and Stuart A. Wolf

in Superconducting State: Mechanisms and Properties

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199652556
eISBN:
9780191767784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652556.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Several of the most important experimental techniques that have been used to probe the most fundamental properties of the superconducting state, the energy gap, and the pairing interaction are ... More


The Physics of Shower Development

Richard Wigmans

in Calorimetry: Energy Measurement in Particle Physics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198786351
eISBN:
9780191828652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786351.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The processes that play a role in the absorption of different types of particles in dense matter are described, with emphasis on the aspects that are important for calorimetry. A distinction is made ... More


PMT background

A. G. Wright

in The Photomultiplier Handbook

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780199565092
eISBN:
9780191747335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199565092.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Photomultiplier (PMT) background derives from sources of photons, and from photoelectrons generation within a PMT. These may also act as a source of optical and radioactive background for ... More


The Current-Current Model of the Weak Interaction

Michael E. Peskin

in Concepts of Elementary Particle Physics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198812180
eISBN:
9780191850301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812180.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses the representation of the weak interaction as a current-current interaction that violates parity and charge conjugation invariance. It describes the experiments that ... More


Particle identification

Hermann Kolanoski and Norbert Wermes

in Particle Detectors: Fundamentals and Applications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198858362
eISBN:
9780191890710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198858362.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The identity of a particle is fixed by its mass, lifetime and quantum numbers such as charge, spin, parity and flavour. A particle’s identity can be inferred by observing its interactions in matter, ... More


Experimental Methods

Vladimir Z. Kresin, Sergei G. Ovchinnikov, and Stuart A. Wolf

in Superconducting State: Mechanisms and Materials

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780198845331
eISBN:
9780191880582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845331.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In this chapter, several of the most important experimental techniques are described. These have been used to probe the most fundamental properties of the superconducting state: the energy gap and ... More


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