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Confounding

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Confounding is the most challenging issue in the interpretation of studies. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part defines confounding and shows what effects it can produce. The ... More


Optical Imaging

Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil

in Observed Brain Dynamics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195178081
eISBN:
9780199864829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter discusses analysis of data acquired using optical imaging techniques, which have the potential to combine good spatial and temporal resolution. Topics covered include noise sources, ... More


Associations between Exposure and Disease

Theodore R. Holford

in Multivariate Methods in Epidemiology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195124408
eISBN:
9780199864270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195124408.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the strategies for studying disease in a population. It considers the rationale for studying more than one factor at a time. It then discusses the ... More


The role of numbers in historical linguistics

Gard B. Jenset and Barbara McGillivray

in Quantitative Historical Linguistics: A Corpus Framework

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780198718178
eISBN:
9780191787515
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198718178.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

Chapter 6 discusses the relationship between numbers or frequencies and historical linguistic arguments. Grounded in the principles laid out in Chapter 2, the benefits of using arguments based on ... More


Planning, choosing, and using statistics

David J. Gibson

in Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology, Second Edition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199671465
eISBN:
9780191792496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671465.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Using the correct statistics to analyse data is a matter of advance planning to collect the appropriate data. This chapter describes the background to planning and choosing appropriate statistical ... More


Environmental Controls on the Distribution of Species

Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland

in Stratigraphic Paleobiology: Understanding the Distribution of Fossil Taxa in Time and Space

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226649375
eISBN:
9780226649399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226649399.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology: Biology

This chapter examines environmental controls on the distribution of organisms by focusing on niches and ecological gradients. The major types of environmental gradients in marine and terrestrial ... More


The Andes: Riding the Tectonic Uplift

Scott Schaefer

in Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268685
eISBN:
9780520948501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268685.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter provides a biogeographic survey of Andean freshwater fishes and a compilation of the species. It explains the use of multivariate methods of classification and trhe parsimony analysis of ... More


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