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SOLAR RADIATION TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE

I. M. Vardavas and F. W. Taylor

in Radiation and Climate

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199227471
eISBN:
9780191711138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227471.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter examines the transfer of solar radiation within the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface. The main processes discussed are molecular absorption in the ultraviolet-visible and ... More


The processing of experimental data

Eugeniusz Żukowski

in X-Ray Compton Scattering

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198501688
eISBN:
9780191718045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198501688.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter provides a comprehensive account of how raw data are corrected for systematic effects in the spectra in order to deduce the Compton profile, i.e., the quantity that is related to the ... More


ELECTRON MOBILITY IN DENSE HE GAS

A.F. Borghesani

in Ions and electrons in liquid helium

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199213603
eISBN:
9780191707421
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213603.003.0027
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Experiments on the mobility of electrons in dense helium gas elucidated how localized electron states develop when the gas density gas is increased. Up to 77 K, the density dependence of the mobility ... More


Phase contrast, contrast transfer function (CTF) and high‐resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM)

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

in Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199580200
eISBN:
9780191731211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Phase contrast, the contrast transfer function (CTF), kinematical scattering and the weak-phase object approximation are central concepts for image formation. The physics is described in great detail ... More


HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF CRYSTALS AND THEIR DEFECTS

JOHN C. H. SPENCE

in High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199552757
eISBN:
9780191708664
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter introduces many-beam high-resolution imaging by first analysing in detail the case of two or three beams, and showing how aberrations may be arranged to cancel by using off-axis ... More


Practical Aspects of Neutron Scattering

Andrew T. Boothroyd

in Principles of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198862314
eISBN:
9780191895081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862314.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In this chapter, aspects of the planning and optimization of a neutron scattering experiment are covered, including attenuation, multiple scattering, data normalization, counting statistics, ... More


Light scattering microrheology

Eric M. Furst and Todd M. Squires

in Microrheology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780199655205
eISBN:
9780191748004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199655205.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

The fundamentals and best practices of passive microrheology using dynamic light scattering and diffusing wave spectroscopy are discussed. The principles of light scattering are introduced and ... More


TEM imaging of thin crystals and their defects

John C. H. Spence

in High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199668632
eISBN:
9780191749322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668632.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 5 describes the theoretical background to the imaging of periodic structures using high-resolution electron microscopy. The theoretical approximations are also derived for high-energy Bragg ... More


Track reconstruction and momentum measurement

Hermann Kolanoski and Norbert Wermes

in Particle Detectors: Fundamentals and Applications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198858362
eISBN:
9780191890710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198858362.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The reconstruction of a charged particle’s trajectory in a magnetic field allows us to determine the momentum vector, that is both the particle’s momentum and its direction. This chapter begins with ... More


Interactions of particles with matter

Hermann Kolanoski and Norbert Wermes

in Particle Detectors: Fundamentals and Applications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198858362
eISBN:
9780191890710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198858362.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Particles are sensed through their interactions with matter. To begin with, the chapter introduces the terms cross section and absorption. Then successively the most important interactions that are ... More


Image processing, super-resolution, and diffractive imaging

John C. H. Spence

in High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199668632
eISBN:
9780191749322
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668632.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Chapter 7 deals with imaging processing methods and super-resolution methods. These include through-focus series, tile series, off-axis electron holography, aberration correction methods for both ... More


Systems with Condensates and Pairing

Klaus Morawetz

in Interacting Systems far from Equilibrium: Quantum Kinetic Theory

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198797241
eISBN:
9780191838743
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797241.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The Bose–Einstein condensation and appearance of superfluidity and superconductivity are introduced from basic phenomena. A systematic theory based on the asymmetric expansion of chapter 11 is shown ... More


Particle detectors

G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg

in Particle Physics in the LHC Era

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198748557
eISBN:
9780191811203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts with an overview of collider detectors before describing interactions of particles with matter, which provides a physics foundation for the design of particle detectors. ... More


Multiple Impurity Scattering

Klaus Morawetz

in Interacting Systems far from Equilibrium: Quantum Kinetic Theory

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198797241
eISBN:
9780191838743
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797241.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Furnished with basic ideas about the scattering on a single impurity, the motion of a particle scattered by many randomly distributed impurities is approached. In spite of having a single particle ... More


Limitations and Beyond

Tuck C. Choy

in Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198705093
eISBN:
9780191774171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705093.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The limitations imposed by the effective medium approximations in EMT are considered to obtain a clearer picture of the shortcomings of EMT and identify pathways for improvement of the theory, in ... More


Perfect Crystal Neutron Optics

Helmut Rauch and Samuel A. Werner

in Neutron Interferometry 2nd Edn: Lessons in Experimental Quantum Mechanics, Wave-Particle Duality, and Entanglement

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198712510
eISBN:
9780191780813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712510.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The perfect crystal, LLL-geometry, neutron interferometer is geometrically analogous to the classical Mach–Zehnder interferometer. Its operation depends in exquisite detail on the dynamical theory of ... More


Molecular-Backscatter Lidar Profiling of the Volume-Scattering Coefficient in Cirrus

Albert Ansmann

in Cirrus

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195130720
eISBN:
9780197561430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195130720.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

Backscatter and polarization lidars have already been used extensively to investigate ice clouds (see chapters 2 and 10). A severe limitation is that trustworthy ... More


Structural and Optical Properties of Cirrus from LIRAD-type Observations

C. Martin R. Platt

in Cirrus

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195130720
eISBN:
9780197561430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195130720.003.0014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

The problem of cirrus clouds, their formation and interactions with solar and infrared (IR) radiation, has been studied over the past two or three decades. ... More


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