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Physical Realization

Sydney Shoemaker

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199214396
eISBN:
9780191706738
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214396.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book addresses the question of how mental properties and other properties not thought of as physical can be instantiated in a world of which physicalism is true. In such a world, the ... More


The autonomy of psychology in the age of neuroscience

Ken Aizawa and Carl Gillett

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

The implications of multiple realization for scientific methodology have recently been hotly debated. For example, neuroscientists have discovered distinct realizations for what appears to be a ... More


What Is Multiple Realization?

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The idea of multiple realization begins with a simple thought: There exists sameness of kind at one level of description, and differences in kind at a lower level of description. Two organisms, for ... More


Why There Are No Laws in the Special Sciences: Three Arguments

Jaegwon Kim

in Essays in the Metaphysics of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585878
eISBN:
9780191595349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585878.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

“Why There Are No Laws in the Special Sciences: Three Arguments” offers three arguments explaining why there are no laws, or “strict” laws, in the special sciences. The first of the arguments begins ... More


Role Functionalism and Its Relationalist Rivals

JONATHAN COHEN

in The Red and the Real: An Essay on Color Ontology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199556168
eISBN:
9780191701672
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556168.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter compares role functionalism with other forms of color relationalism that have attracted philosophical adherents and argues that these alternative forms of relationalism all have serious ... More


Realization and Multiple Realization

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Functionalism, or non-reductive physicalism, presupposes the possibility of multiple realization. Multiple realization, in turn, suggests an analysis of realization as an ontological dependence ... More


The Likelihood of Multiple Realizability

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Block and Fodor classically offered three lines of indirect evidence for multiple realization: The Lashleyan doctrine of equipotentiality, evolutionary convergence on psychological traits, and the ... More


The Multiple Realization Book

Thomas W. Polger and Lawrence A. Shapiro

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Since Hilary Putnam offered multiple realization as an empirical hypothesis in the 1960s, philosophical consensus has turned against the idea that mental processes could be identified with brain ... More


Multiple Realization, Autonomy, and Integration

Kenneth Aizawa

in Explanation and Integration in Mind and Brain Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780199685509
eISBN:
9780191765667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199685509.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter attempts to vindicate what is sometimes pilloried as the “Received View” of realization and multiple realization in the philosophy of mind. Using the Dimensioned view of realization, it ... More


Multiple Realization and Relevant Differences

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Multiple realization requires sameness at one level of description and difference at another. But not any difference suffices for multiple realization. The differences should be relevant to the ways ... More


Evidence for Multiple Realization: Neural Plasticity

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Because the multiple realization thesis has been offered as an empirical hypothesis, attention must turn to the evidence on its behalf. Some evidence is direct, in the sense that it purports to ... More


Physicalism and Multiple Realization

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Of the various theories of mind philosophers have developed, the identity theory and functionalism have seemed the most promising. However, functionalism, because it allows for the multiple ... More


RDoC’s Metaphysical Assumptions: Problems and Promises

Ginger A. Hoffman and Peter Zachar

in Extraordinary Science and Psychiatry: Responses to the Crisis in Mental Health Research

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035484
eISBN:
9780262341752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035484.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Critics contend that the categories within the DSM are fueling the current crisis in psychiatry because they are not valid. As a remedy, NIMH has established RDoC, a framework of psychological and ... More


Saving Faculty Psychology: Debunking the Argument from Multiple Realization

John Zerilli

in The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse tells us about Language and Cognition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780190067885
eISBN:
9780190067915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190067885.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The future of faculty psychology depends in no small part on the productive collaboration between neuroscience and psychology. The argument from multiple realization has posed a significant ... More


The Identity Theory*

Christopher S. Hill

in Meaning, Mind, and Knowledge

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199665822
eISBN:
9780191766336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665822.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The psychophysical identity theory, also known as type-materialism and the central state identity thesis, is supported by a powerful argument based on correlations, and can be defended against the ... More


Introduction to Background and Polemics

Mark A. Bedau and Paul Humphreys

in Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262026215
eISBN:
9780262268011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026215.003.0021
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The following chapters aim to provide some classic resources on certain philosophical and scientific assumptions and techniques, such as reduction, supervenience, multiple realization, downwards ... More


In Defense of Type-materialism*

Christopher S. Hill

in Meaning, Mind, and Knowledge

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199665822
eISBN:
9780191766336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665822.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Type-materialism asserts that every qualitative mental state is identical with a brain state. It is maintained, contrary to Putnam’s multiple realization argument, that qualitative states are ... More


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