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Reduction and Corrective Asymmetry

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the relationship between reductionism and the mechanisms approach to extrapolation. It maintains that the mechanisms approach is committed to reductionism only insofar as it ... More


The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence

Robert W. Batterman

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146479
eISBN:
9780199833078
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146476.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This book focuses on a form of reasoning in science that I call “asymptotic reasoning.” At base, this type of reasoning involves methods that eliminate details and, in some sense, precision. ... More


Philosophical Models of Reduction

Robert W. Batterman

in The Devil in the Details: Asymptotic Reasoning in Explanation, Reduction, and Emergence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195146479
eISBN:
9780199833078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195146476.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins with a discussion of Nagelian and neo‐Nagelian models of reduction. It also considers the multiple realizability argument against reduction of the special sciences and argues that ... More


Mechanisms, Multiple Realizability, and Medium Independence

Gualtiero Piccinini

in Neurocognitive Mechanisms: Explaining Biological Cognition

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780198866282
eISBN:
9780191903922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198866282.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter provides an account of realization within a mechanistic framework and introduces the notions of variable realizability, multiple realizability, and medium independence. Realization is ... More


The Skeptical Argument Impugning Psychophysical Identity Statements: on its Significance and the Cost of its Philosophical Resources

LaPorte Joseph

in Rigid Designation and Theoretical Identities

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199609208
eISBN:
9780191745027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609208.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter argues that the skeptical argument impugning psychophysical identities is significant if convincing and that the significant impact of the argument comes at little cost, in terms of ... More


The Likelihood of Multiple Realizability

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Block and Fodor classically offered three lines of indirect evidence for multiple realization: The Lashleyan doctrine of equipotentiality, evolutionary convergence on psychological traits, and the ... More


Multiple Realization: Keeping It Real

Louise M. Antony

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter takes Chapter 5's causal exclusion argument to pose a dilemma about the reality of multiple realisable properties: either they are reducible to first-order physical properties or they ... More


The Computationalist Argument for Multiple Realizability

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Many arguments for multiple realization begin with the claim that psychological states are computational states, and conclude the abstractness of computational states assures their multiple ... More


The Underlying Metaphysical Issue

Christopher Mole

in Attention Is Cognitive Unison: An Essay in Philosophical Psychology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195384529
eISBN:
9780199872817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384529.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Bradley and James’s disagreement as to how the explanation of attention should proceed can be traced to a disagreement about the metaphysical category in which attention belongs. This chapter gives ... More


Dualisms, Functionalisms, Consciousness-Criteria

Ted Honderich

in Actual Consciousness

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198714385
eISBN:
9780191782794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714385.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

There are reasons to look at two existing kinds of theories of consciousness, including the need to elicit criteria by which to judge any theory of consciousness. One kind is dualism, still ... More


The Logical Structure of Kinds

Eric Funkhouser

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198713302
eISBN:
9780191781681
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713302.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This book uncovers a logical structure that is common to many, if not all, of the kinds posited by scientific taxonomies. Specification relations, such as those holding between determinates and ... More


Multiple Realizability II: An Analysis

Eric Funkhouser

in The Logical Structure of Kinds

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198713302
eISBN:
9780191781681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713302.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents and defends a positive position on multiple realizability. It is quite liberal in that any multiplicity of realizations counts as multiple realizability. This is palatable once ... More


What Is Multiple Realization?

Thomas W. Polger

in The Multiple Realization Book

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198732891
eISBN:
9780191796913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732891.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The idea of multiple realization begins with a simple thought: There exists sameness of kind at one level of description, and differences in kind at a lower level of description. Two organisms, for ... More


Lynch’s Functionalist Theory of Truth

Marian David

in Truth and Pluralism: Current Debates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195387469
eISBN:
9780199332427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387469.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

In his book, Truth as One and Many, Michael Lynch presents a theory of truth with two main components. The first is a functionalist account of truth: a proposition is true just when it has some ... More


Multiple Realizability I: Its Role and Importance

Eric Funkhouser

in The Logical Structure of Kinds

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198713302
eISBN:
9780191781681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713302.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter offers criticisms of many views of multiple realizability that do not appropriately distinguish it from cases of multiple determination. The basic idea of multiple realization is ... More


Abandoning the Levels Conception: First Steps

John Heil

in From an Ontological Point of View

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199259748
eISBN:
9780191597657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259747.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Proponents of the idea that reality is hierarchical appeal to the ‘multiple realizability’ of higher‐level properties. The ontology of multiple realizability is fuzzy, however, and in any case, we ... More


The Causal Autonomy of the Special Sciences

Peter Menzies and Christian List

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The systems studied in the special sciences are often said to be causally autonomous, in the sense that their higher‐level properties have causal powers that are independent of those of their more ... More


Neural Computation, Multiple Realizability, and the Prospects for Mechanistic Explanation

David M. Kaplan

in Explanation and Integration in Mind and Brain Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780199685509
eISBN:
9780191765667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199685509.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

There is an ongoing philosophical and scientific debate concerning the nature of computational explanation in the neurosciences. Recently, some have cited modeling work involving so-called canonical ... More


Why There Is Anything Except Physics *

Barry Loewer

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter first discusses a tension in Fodor's treatment of special sciences. It argues that, on Fodor's account, special science counterfactuals are necessitated by fundamental physical laws and ... More


Grounding, Explanation, and Multiple Realization in Mathematics and Ethics

David Liggins

in Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Dispensability

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198778592
eISBN:
9780191824326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198778592.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

According to a popular ‘explanationist’ argument for moral or mathematical realism the best explanation of some phenomena are moral or mathematical, and this implies the relevant form of realism. One ... More


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