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Human Groups as Adaptive Units: Toward a Permanent Consensus

David Sloan Wilson

in The Innate Mind: Volume 2: Culture and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310139
eISBN:
9780199871209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310139.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Foundational changes are taking place in the understanding of human groups. For decades, the biological and social sciences have been dominated by a form of individualism that renders groups as ... More


The Theory of Multilevel Selection

Charles Goodnight

in The Theory of Evolution: Principles, Concepts, and Assumptions

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226671024
eISBN:
9780226671338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226671338.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the modeling of multilevel selection (MLS) – and the related concepts of group selection and kin selection – using variance partitioning methods, using the Price equation to ... More


Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines which of the equivalent alternative partitions of fitness, including inclusive fitness and group fitness, can be interpreted as being subject to natural selection in a ... More


Social Behavior and Evolutionary Thought

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book demonstrates the generality of inclusive fitness theory, with particular emphasis on its fundamental evolutionary logic. It presents the basic mathematical theory of natural selection and ... More


Multilevel Selection in a Broader Hierarchical Perspective

Telmo Pievani and Andrea Parravicini

in Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Since Darwin, multilevel selection has been the key concept of the hierarchical approach to evolution. The debate around the significance of group selection as an evolutionary phenomenon (in both an ... More


Selective extinction and speciation

Charles W. Fowler

in Systemic Management: Sustainable Human Interactions with Ecosystems and the Biosphere

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199540969
eISBN:
9780191716249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199540969.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter explores one of the primary contributors to the emergence of macroecological patterns—multilevel natural selection to include selectivity at the species level. It considers the ... More


The Strategy of Exclusion and the Problem of Collectives

John Basl

in The Death of the Ethic of Life

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190923877
eISBN:
9780190923907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190923877.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Chapter 4 begins to develop the case against biocentrism. Biocentrism faces a problem of exclusion; it is not possible to adopt the account of welfare defended in chapter 3 in a way that grounds the ... More


Associative Effects: Competition, Social Interactions, Group and Kin Selection

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The phenotypes of those individuals with which an focal individual interacts often influences the trait value in the focal individual. Maternal effects is a classic example of this phenomena, as is ... More


The Evolution of Sociality

Michael J. Wade

in Adaptation in Metapopulations: How Interaction Changes Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226129563
eISBN:
9780226129877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129877.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter contains a discussion of Maynard Smith’s conceptual distinction between kin and group selection. The author discusses the design and experimental study of kin selection for and against ... More


Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory

Ellen Clarke

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter develops the idea that the germ-soma split and the suppression of individual fitness differences within the corporate entity are not always essential steps in the evolution of corporate ... More


Selection among Groups

Richard Mcelreath and Robert Boyd

in Mathematical Models of Social Evolution: A Guide for the Perplexed

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226558264
eISBN:
9780226558288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226558288.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In his book Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior, ornithologist V. C. Wynne-Edwards argued that many enigmatic bird behaviors functioned to prevent over-population. The book generated a ... More


Selection, Security, and Evolutionary International Relations

Gregory P. Dietl

in Natural Security: A Darwinian Approach to a Dangerous World

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520253476
eISBN:
9780520934313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520253476.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter attempts to strengthen the conceptualization of selection in evolutionary international relations. It discusses multilevel (or hierarchical) selection theory, which takes as its starting ... More


Two Meanings of Complex Adaptive Systems

David S. Wilson

in Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035385
eISBN:
9780262337717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035385.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

In complex systems theory, two meanings of a complex adaptive system (CAS) need to be distinguished. The first, CAS1, refers to a complex system that is adaptive as a system; the second, CAS2, refers ... More


Shaping the Evolution of Complex Societies

John Gowdy, Mariana Mazzucato, Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh, Sander E. van der Leeuw, and David S. Wilson

in Complexity and Evolution: Toward a New Synthesis for Economics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035385
eISBN:
9780262337717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035385.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter calls for an approach to economic policy that takes evolutionary and complex systems theory into account. Such an approach alters the way that economic policy is framed and how policy ... More


Multilevel Selection and Major Transitions

David Sloan Wilson

in Evolution—the Extended Synthesis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262513678
eISBN:
9780262315142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262513678.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reviews the debate on group selection, a concept that has experienced vertiginous ups and downs since the 1960s, and brings it up to modern standards within the broader context of ... More


Rules of the Innovation Commons

Jason Potts

in Innovation Commons: The Origin of Economic Growth

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780190937492
eISBN:
9780190937539
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190937492.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, Microeconomics

This chapter examines the basic institutional similarities between innovation commons (as a species of knowledge commons) and the eight core design principles, or rules of the commons, that Ostrom ... More


Cancer from an Evolutionary Perspective

Anya Plutynski

in Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780199967452
eISBN:
9780190878474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199967452.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In this chapter, my goals are threefold. First, I give a taxonomy of evolutionary explanations of cancer, illustrating distinct types with case studies of explanations of cancer’s origins and ... More


How Many Levels Are There? How Insights from Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality Help Measure the Hierarchical Complexity of Life

Carl Simpson

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that the multilevel selection (MLS)-1 to MLS-2 model of a major transition is incomplete because it overlooks a crucial component of fitness. It addresses that the evolution of ... More


Biological Ontology and Hierarchical Organization: A Defense of Rank Freedom

Samir Okasha

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents a displacement of the organism as a privileged level of analysis in evolutionary biology. It is concerned with the ontology of biology systems, with particular reference to ... More


Why Genomics Needs Multilevel Evolutionary Theory

T. Ryan Gregory, Tyler A. Elliott, and Stefan Linquist

in Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Less than 2% of the human genome is made up of the ~20,000 protein-coding genes. The remainder consists primarily of non-coding sequences of numerous types, such as introns, highly repetitive ... More


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