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The United States and the GATT/WTO System

Gautam Sen

in US Hegemony and International Organizations: The United States and Multilateral Institutions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199261437
eISBN:
9780191599309
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261431.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

An examination is made of the relationship between the US and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and its successor, the World Trade Organization, addressing the crucial question of ... More


The Multilateral Trade Regime: A Global Public Good for All ?

Ronald U. Mendoza

in Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195157406
eISBN:
9780199832965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195157400.003.0019
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The structure of arrangements for multilateral trade has caused much controversy, as was witnessed by the WTO ministerial conference at Seattle in 1999 and on other occasions. Examines the problem ... More


The Trading System in Perspective

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chapter 1 makes up the first part of the book. It presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of the multilateral trading system and introduces the basic functions of the trade regime and ... More


Negotiating Forum

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An analysis is made of the role of the WTO (World Trade Organization) as a forum for negotiations. Special attention is given to the concept of reciprocity, since this is a central element of ... More


Trade Leakage and Trade Linkage

Scott Barrett

in Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199286096
eISBN:
9780191602832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286094.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The previous chapters developed a theory of environmental cooperation in isolation of other international affairs. This chapter considers the possibility of linking different issues, focusing on ... More


Consequences for the International Trading System

Richard Pomfret

in The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248872
eISBN:
9780191596797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248877.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Examines the systemic effects of RTAs on the global economy. Discusses why RTAs tend to proliferate as well as why the multilateral trading system's basis in non‐discriminatory trade policies is ... More


The Multilateral Trading System

Sylvia Ostry

in Oxford Handbook of International Business

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241828
eISBN:
9780191596834
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241821.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The main changes in the multilateral world‐trading system since and including the GATT Uruguay Round in 1994 are summarized, and the most urgent reforms needed to keep the system going are ... More


China and the Multilateral Trading System

Robert Z. Lawrence

in China, Asia, and the New World Economy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199235889
eISBN:
9780191717109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235889.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter examines the implications of China's emergence for the global trading system. It asks whether China's bilateral and regional initiatives might undermine the multilateral trading order ... More


The World Trade Organization

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An account is given of the organizational structure of the WTO (World Trade Organization), which was established as a multilateral trade organization on 1 January 1995 to encompass a modified GATT ... More


Should There Be Multilateral Rules on Foreign Direct Investment?

Edward M. Graham

in Governments, Globalization, and International Business

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296058
eISBN:
9780191596209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198296053.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The surge of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the late 1980s and first half of the 1990s and the associated expansion of the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) has left the world a ... More


International Trade Policy under George W. Bush

Nitsan Chorev

in Assessing the George W. Bush Presidency: A Tale of Two Terms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748627400
eISBN:
9780748671946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748627400.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

George W. Bush came to office with an ambitious free trade agenda but without clear congressional support for it. Initially, the Bush administration engaged in a great flurry of activity, including ... More


From GATT to the WTO

Petros C. Mavroidis

in The Regulation of International Trade: GATT

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262029841
eISBN:
9780262333894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029841.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter begins with a review of the history of the multilateral trade order starting with Bretton Woods and the negotiating record in order to understand the intentions of the framers. The ... More


Coping with Shocks and Shifts: The Multilateral Trading System in Historical Perspective

Douglas A. Irwin and Kevin H. O’Rourke

in Globalization in an Age of Crisis: Multilateral Economic Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226030753
eISBN:
9780226030890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226030890.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter describes the multilateral trading system over the last two centuries. At catastrophic moments (“shocks”) when the system has lacked shock absorbers, political economy forces have then ... More


Whither the Trading System?

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This short concluding chapter presents some final remarks on the future of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and the challenge of international cooperation in the trade area.


What Do We Do Now?

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

It is clearly shown that the situation regarding preferential trade agreements (PTAs) cries out for palliatives and for solutions. Three options have been explored: (1) halting the formation of new ... More


The MiFID and Internalisation

Guido Ferrarini and Fabio Recine

in Investor Protection in Europe: Corporate Law Making, The MiFID and Beyond

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199202911
eISBN:
9780191707964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199202911.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

This chapter examines the new rules concerning the internalisation of trading orders by investment intermediaries included in the Directive on Markets in Financial Instruments (MiFID). It begins by ... More


Structural Equity

Aaron James

in Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for a Global Economy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199846153
eISBN:
9780199933389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199846153.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter elaborates the idea of “structural equity,” seen as the central fairness issue in international economic practice. It presents a deontological and contractualist conception of equity in ... More


Preferential Trade Agreements

Pravin Krishna

in Handbook of Trade Policy for Development

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199680405
eISBN:
9780191760266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680405.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Pravin Krishna provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on member and non-member countries. He demonstrates that PTAs have ambiguous ... More


Erhard and the Realization of the Social Market Economy

A. J. Nicholls

in Freedom with Responsibility: The Social Market Economy in Germany 1918-1963

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198208525
eISBN:
9780191678059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198208525.003.0017
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter highlights Ludwig Erhard's initiatives in the realization of the social market economy in West Germany. Even during the Korean crisis, Erhard pressed ahead with his support for the most ... More


Introduction: Linking Trade Regulation and Human Rights in International Law: An Overview

Thomas Cottier, Joost Pauwelyn, and Elisabeth Bürgi Bonanomi

in Human Rights and International Trade

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199285822
eISBN:
9780191700378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285822.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter provides an overview of the linkage between trade regulation and human rights in international law. Linking trade and human rights is a complex, but important, issue. Different from ... More


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