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Time, Size, and Complexity

John Tyler Bonner

in Randomness in Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157016
eISBN:
9781400846429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157016.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the evolution of size. It describes the increase in size and complexity over geological time, from multicellularity (cell societies) to animal societies, with an attempt to ... More


Genomic, phylogenetic, and cell biological insights into metazoan origins

Scott A. Nichols, Mark J. Dayel, and Nicole King

in Animal Evolution: Genomes, Fossils, and Trees

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199549429
eISBN:
9780191721601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549429.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

Over 600 million years ago, the first multicellular metazoans evolved from their single celled ancestors. Although not recorded in the fossil record, the earliest events in metazoan evolution can be ... More


Metazoans enter the stage

Alessandro Minelli

in Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198566205
eISBN:
9780191713866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566205.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Molecular phylogenetics places the animals firmly within the clade of the Opisthokonta, with the choanoflagellates as their most likely sister group. Choanoflagellates possess many of those ... More


Size Doesn’t Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology 1

Maureen A. O'Malley

in Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199691982
eISBN:
9780191738111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691982.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides a manifesto for the importance of taking proper account of microbes, from many perspectives the dominant form of life certainly in the past and arguably even today, in the ... More


Modeling Biological Systems

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter is devoted to one of the main applications of artificial chemistries, the modeling of biological systems. The chapter starts at the molecular level, with algorithms that model RNA and ... More


An expanded view of social evolution

Andrew F. G. Bourke

in Principles of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199231157
eISBN:
9780191774553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231157.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A series of major transitions in evolution has generated the biological hierarchy (e.g., genes in cells, cells in organisms, organisms in societies) observed today. Each transition requires that ... More


Social group formation

Andrew F. G. Bourke

in Principles of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199231157
eISBN:
9780191774553
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231157.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Pathways of social group formation are poorly known for the origin of the eukaryotic cell, sexual reproduction, and many interspecific mutualisms. In the origin of multicellularity and eusociality, ... More


Phylogenetic, Functional, and Geological Perspectives on Complex Multicellularity

Andrew H. Knoll and David Hewitt

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter develops a subtle model that integrates environmental and internal factors. It describes the phylogenetic distribution of multicellular organisms in general and complex multicellular ... More


Alternative Patterns of Explanation for Major Transitions

Brett Calcott

in The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that the major transitions literature has been too focused on determining conditions in which there is selection for cooperation, despite the threat of defection. It concentrates ... More


Individuality and the Control of Life Cycles

Beckett Sterner

in Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Evolutionary transitions in individuality occur when units of evolution at one level, such as single cells, associate together and evolve into higher-level units. I argue that multi-level selection ... More


Discovering the Ties That Bind: Cell-Cell Communication and the Development of Cell Sociology

Andrew S. Reynolds

in Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780226446318
eISBN:
9780226446592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226446592.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Social metaphors have long been a part of the cell theory. In the nineteenth century plants and animals were described as ‘cell-states’ (ZellenStaaten) composed of cell ‘citizens’ functionally ... More


The Lego Game: The Genesis of Visible Life

Alexandre Meinesz

in How Life Began: Evolution's Three Geneses

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226519319
eISBN:
9780226519333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226519333.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The passage from microbial unicellular animal and plant life to multicellular life is easy to imagine; it seems so evident that is not discussed in most evolution books. Nevertheless, it required a ... More


Biomimetic systems

Tony J. Prescott

in Living machines: A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199674923
eISBN:
9780191842702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199674923.003.0038
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Development

So far in this volume we have considered the nature of living things and some of their key building blocks and capabilities. This has set the stage for the current section and the next where we will ... More


Cancer

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. The cellular abnormalities that characterize cancer generally represent dysfunction of the evolved control mechanisms that allow ... More


The Multicellular Organism as a Social Phenomenon

Jonathan Birch

in The Philosophy of Social Evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198733058
eISBN:
9780191797491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198733058.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

As Hamilton observed, the stability of cooperation within clonal groups of cells is no mystery, since the cells’ inclusive fitness interests are aligned. However, the process of social group ... More


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