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The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Michael Graziano

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This book offers a fundamental new theory of motor cortex organization: the rendering of the movement repertoire onto the cortex. The action repertoire of an animal is highly dimensional, whereas the ... More


Early Experiments on Motor Cortex

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the emergence of dominant ideas about motor cortex. It traces motor cortex research from its beginning to motor maps of Penfield and Boldrey (1937) and Woolsey et al. (1952). ... More


Neuronal plasticity after stroke: Evidence from animal models of postinjury recovery

Randolph J. Nudo and Ines Eisner-Janowicz

in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528999
eISBN:
9780191723926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528999.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins by reviewing the sequence of events that results in neuronal injury after stroke. It then reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various animal models used to model stroke ... More


Ethologically Relevant Movements Mapped on the Motor Cortex

Michael S. A

in Primate Neuroethology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195326598
eISBN:
9780199864904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326598.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter reviews evidence that motor cortex in primates is not organized according to topographic maps related to the body surface, but is organized according to species-typical motor behavior. ... More


Plasticity in Adult M1 Cortex During Motor Skill Learning

Julien Doyon and Leslie G. Ungerleider

in Filling-In: From Perceptual Completion to Cortical Reorganization

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195140132
eISBN:
9780199865307
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140132.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter reviews the results of a large body of studies that examined the cerebral plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) using neurophysiological approaches in monkeys and rodents, or ... More


Encoding and Beyond in the Motor Cortex

Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos, Maryam Saleh, and Julian A. Mattiello

in Primate Neuroethology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195326598
eISBN:
9780199864904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326598.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter proposes that the motor cortex does not encode movement as any one simple Newtonian parameter of motion. Rather, if motor cortical neurons actually encode anything at all, they represent ... More


Reprogramming surviving motor cortex after stroke

Wolf Muellbacher and Mark Hallett

in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528999
eISBN:
9780191723926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528999.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses neural remapping after a stroke with respect to maximal recovery, considering the effectiveness of current therapies, including TMS, physical therapy, pharmacological therapies ... More


 Differential Involvement of the Prefrontal, Premotor, and Primary Motor Cortices in Rule‐Based Motor Behavior

Eiji Hoshi

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on the differential involvement of multiple areas of the lateral frontal cortex in rule‐based behavior. It presents evidence obtained from physiological and anatomical studies of ... More


Neuronal Control of Movement

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Two main types of experiment have addressed the question of how neurons in motor cortex control movement. One type focuses on the descending pathways that map specific points in motor cortex to ... More


Hierarchy in the Cortical Motor System

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

The hypothesis of hierarchy in the cortical motor system has a long history of conflicting opinions. Whether any premotor cortex existed was initially controversial. Researchers then began to ... More


Reorganization of somatosensory and motor cortex following peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury in primates

Jon H. Kaas and Yvonne Rothemund

in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528999
eISBN:
9780191723926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528999.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Damage to peripheral nerves or the central axons of those nerves in the spinal cord disrupts the normal flow of information to the brain, and the output of the brain via motor neuron projections to ... More


An Integrative Map of the Body

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter begins by discussing the question of whether the musculature of the hand is controlled in a decomposed or in an integrated manner in the primary motor cortex. It then discusses ... More


Neurophysiology of Hand Function

Lynette A. Jones and Susan J. Lederman

in Human Hand Function

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173154
eISBN:
9780199786749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173154.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter considers human hand function from a neurophysiological perspective and begins by highlighting several areas of controversy in this research area. The structure and function of the ... More


Functional Architecture of Directional Tuning in the Primate Motor Cortex During 3D Reaching

Hugo Merchant, Thomas Naselaris, Wilbert Zarco, Ramón Bartolo, Luis Prado, Oswaldo Pérez, and Juan Carlos Méndez

in From Development to Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195369007
eISBN:
9780199865253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369007.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

The primary motor cortex (M1) maintains a dynamic representation of higher-order features of movement, most notably the direction of reaching. In fact, almost half of the cells in the arm region of ... More


Introduction

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This introductory chapter begins with a backstory on the experiments that led to the proposition of two principles to explain the basic properties of motor cortex. One principle concerned the ... More


Beta-2 Oscillations

Roger D. Roger and Miles A. Whittington

in Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195342796
eISBN:
9780199776276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342796.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

Neuromodulatory substances evoke beta2 oscillations in motor and secondary somatosensory cortex, that depend on gap junctions. In the latter case, the oscillations are only weakly dependent on ... More


Complex Movements Evoked by Electrical Stimulation of Motor Cortex

Michael S. A. Graziano

in The Intelligent Movement Machine: An Ethological Perspective on the Primate Motor System

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326703
eISBN:
9780199864867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326703.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes electrical stimulation studies in the macaque motor cortex, in which stimulation on a behaviorally relevant time scale evoked complex movements that resembled behaviorally ... More


Cerebral reprogramming underlying functional recovery following stroke

Nick S. Ward and Richard S. J. Frackowiak

in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528999
eISBN:
9780191723926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528999.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study reorganization following motor cortex damage resulting from a stroke. It describes high activity soon after the stroke followed ... More


Anatomical substrates for movement performance: cerebral cortex and the corticospinal tract

Robert Porter and Roger Lemon

in Corticospinal Function and Voluntary Movement

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523758
eISBN:
9780191724404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523758.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Although the function of a particular cortical area is determined not so much by its intrinsic structure as by its extrinsic connections, its inputs and outputs, it is important to review the ... More


Neural Mechanisms for Action Observation

Beatriz Calvo-Merino

in People Watching: Social, Perceptual, and Neurophysiological Studies of Body Perception

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780195393705
eISBN:
9780199979271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393705.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The discovery of mirror neurons in the macaque monkey, or neurons in the premotor cortex that respond during the execution and perception of motor acts, established the first neurophysiological ... More


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