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 Introduction

Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser

in Bioethics: A systematic approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195159066
eISBN:
9780199786466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195159063.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter provides a preview of the rest of the book, concentrating on the concept of morality. It distinguishes between a moral system and a moral theory, and gives a preliminary account of ... More


WHERE DO MORAL THEORIES COME FROM?: Henry Sidgwick and Twentieth-century Ethics

Margaret Urban Walker

in Moral Understandings: A Feminist Study in Ethics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315394
eISBN:
9780199872053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315394.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Feminist Philosophy

This chapter traces the emergence of a theoretical-juridical model of moral theory in the work of English utilitarian philosopher Henry Sidgwick's masterwork, The Methods of Ethics. Through a series ... More


Part I The Moral System

Bernard Gert

in Common Morality: Deciding What to Do

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195173710
eISBN:
9780199785926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195173716.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Part I describes the moral system, including the moral rules, moral ideals, morally relevant features, and the two-step procedure for determining when a violation of a moral rules is strongly ... More


Part II The Moral Theory

Bernard Gert

in Common Morality: Deciding What to Do

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195173710
eISBN:
9780199785926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195173716.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Part II contains a justification of the moral system that shows that all rational persons who limit their beliefs to those shared by all other moral agents, and who seek agreement with them, will put ... More


The Power of the Moral Responsibility System

Bruce N. Waller

in The Stubborn System of Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028165
eISBN:
9780262327404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028165.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Belief in moral responsibility is held in place by a larger belief system in which moral responsibility is deeply embedded. When operating within the deep assumptions of that system moral ... More


Common Morality: Deciding What to Do

Bernard Gert

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195173710
eISBN:
9780199785926
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195173716.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The first part of this book provides a detailed description of the moral system that is commonly used, although usually only implicitly, by people when they are making thoughtful moral decisions and ... More


Attaining Unity in Guodian Texts

Holloway Kenneth W.

in Guodian: The Newly Discovered Seeds of Chinese Religious and Political Philosophy

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195371451
eISBN:
9780199870653
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371451.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

This chapter further considers the issue of interpersonal connectedness in the excavated version of the Laozi (Daode Jing) and “The Five Aspects of Conduct.” Both of these texts emphasize realizing a ... More


H. L. Martensen

Stephen Backhouse

in Kierkegaard's Critique of Christian Nationalism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199604722
eISBN:
9780191729324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604722.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society, Philosophy of Religion

The role of the state and the place of the nation in Christian thought forms the backbone of Bishop Hans Lassen Martensen's speculative system. The chapter examines the issue as it appears in ... More


Moral Reasoning

Andrew Sneddon

in Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016117
eISBN:
9780262298926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016117.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter explores moral reasoning and argues that it is widely realized, taking place centrally and literally (but not solely) between people. It first provides a sketch of the Wide Moral Systems ... More


Psychological Pluralism, Environmental Sensitivity, and the Bounds of Morality

Andrew Sneddon

in Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016117
eISBN:
9780262298926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016117.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter examines pluralism and externalism in relation to the psychology of moral agency. It first considers the extent to which the psychology of moral agency is fragmented by discussing ... More


The Moral Responsibility System

Bruce N. Waller

in Against Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016599
eISBN:
9780262298940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016599.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores the moral responsibility system and the reasons why it has been an influential concept in intuition, common sense, the legal system, and philosophical reflections. It is hardly ... More


A World without Moral Responsibility

Bruce N. Waller

in Against Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016599
eISBN:
9780262298940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016599.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter concentrates on the fear of the unknown as the main deterrent to contemplating the abolition of moral responsibility. For a very long time, man has been invariably attached to the system ... More


Introduction: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Andrew Sneddon

in Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016117
eISBN:
9780262298926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016117.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Philosophers have long wrestled with the question of whether the psychological foundations of morality are emotional or rational. David Hume views reason as the slave of the passions, so they must be ... More


Is It Possible to Eliminate Moral Responsibility?

Bruce N. Waller

in Against Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016599
eISBN:
9780262298940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016599.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter illustrates the desperation that is almost tangible in the attempts to support moral responsibility. Evidence of this desperation becomes apparent in the wide variety of distinctly ... More


Adam Smith: History and Impartiality

Aaron Garrett and Ryan Hanley

in Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume I: Morals, Politics, Art, Religion

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199560677
eISBN:
9780191761300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560677.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter provides an overview of the philosophy of Adam Smith by examining the place of history and the role of impartiality in his philosophy. A brief introduction to Smith and his writings is ... More


Killing Animals

Rosemary Rodd

in Biology, Ethics, and Animals

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240525
eISBN:
9780191680199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240525.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that any satisfactory moral system has to give some account of the way we ought to treat non-human animals. Animals are subjects, not objects, and as such they are entities with a ... More


Rethinking the Reactive Attitudes: Attributing Moral Responsibility

Andrew Sneddon

in Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016117
eISBN:
9780262298926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016117.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter deals with the capacities required to attribute moral responsibility to ourselves and others. It examines P. F. Strawson’s account of the attribution of moral responsibility in his 1962 ... More


The Production of Action

Andrew Sneddon

in Like-Minded: Externalism and Moral Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016117
eISBN:
9780262298926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016117.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter examines the production of action in the context of moral psychology, first by considering the familiar philosophical debate about the psychology of virtue. It then describes the Wide ... More


Francis Hutcheson’s Philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment: Reception, Reputation, and Legacy

Daniel Carey

in Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, Volume I: Morals, Politics, Art, Religion

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780199560677
eISBN:
9780191761300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560677.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter presents an account of the life and work of Francis Hutcheson. It charts his career from its beginnings in Dublin to the attempt to cement his place in British intellectual life that was ... More


Indirect Reciprocity

Karl Sigmund

in Human Social Evolution: The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199791750
eISBN:
9780190267858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199791750.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores how and why humans exhibit morality. It considers the influence of group competition on human evolution as well as Richard D. Alexander's concept of indirect reciprocity, its ... More


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