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Mathematics for Humans

Robert Hanna

in Kant, Science, and Human Nature

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199285549
eISBN:
9780191713965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285549.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines Kant's much-criticized views on mathematics in general and arithmetic in particular. It makes a case for the claim that Kant's theory of arithmetic is not subject to the most ... More


The Realm of Sensibility

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

The mid‐eighteenth century rethinking of the aims of natural philosophy was one in which the central role accorded to rationality in the first half of the century now comes to be translated into ... More


Samuel Pufendorf

Stephen Buckle

in Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240945
eISBN:
9780191680304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240945.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter focuses on Samuel Pufendorf, who was, in the latter stages of the 17th century, the best known and, by and large, the most respected, writer on natural law, not least because he was ... More


Francis Hutcheson

Stephen Buckle

in Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240945
eISBN:
9780191680304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240945.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Locke bequeathed to his successors a complex inheritance. The Two Treatises hinged on the inalienability of the property in one's person. Not only did this rule out the more explicit forms of ... More


Collegiate Philosophy, 1800–1868

Bruce Kuklick

in A History of Philosophy in America: 1720-2000

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199260164
eISBN:
9780191597893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260168.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

For most of the nineteenth century, the study of theology dominated philosophy in American colleges. But collegiate philosophy did begin the process of professionalization, and had an enormous social ... More


Recovered Goods: Durkheimian Sociology as Virtue Ethics

Philip S. Gorski

in The Post-Secular in Question: Religion in Contemporary Society

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814738726
eISBN:
9780814738733
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814738726.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter examines what Émile Durkheim could have meant by his statement that sociology is a “moral science” and whether the project it implied is a defensible one. Durkheim's goal was not only to ... More


St. Thomas and Moral Taxonomy

Lawrence Dewan

in Wisdom, Law, and Virtue: Essays in Thomistic Ethics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823227969
eISBN:
9780823237210
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823227969.003.0028
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

In treating the question, “what is philosophy?” in the Republic, Plato carefully set forth the technique for developing an answer. He had to say what he meant by the ... More


The Application of the Rule of Inference to Norms

Hans Kelsen

in General Theory of Norms

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198252177
eISBN:
9780191681363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198252177.003.0058
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter discusses whether the syllogism of traditional propositional logic is applicable — directly or indirectly — to norms. The question is whether the logical thought-process of the syllogism ... More


Ought to Is: The Puzzle of Moral Science

John Basl and Christian Coons

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics 12

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198805076
eISBN:
9780191843174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805076.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

While many doubt that purely empirical claims can entail any moral claim, moral premises often appear to have empirical entailments. However, unless the moral premises are treated as stipulated ... More


The Goals of Science Education: The Working Men’s College

Matthew Stanley

in Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon: From Theistic Science to Naturalistic Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226164878
eISBN:
9780226164908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226164908.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The myth of inevitable conflict between science and religion grew out of a genuine battleground - the control of educational institutions in Britain. Huxley and the scientific naturalists were ... More


Moral Science

Craig Smith

in Adam Ferguson and the Idea of Civil Society: Moral Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781474413275
eISBN:
9781474460187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474413275.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter outlines Ferguson’s commitment to an empirical, observation based, form of moral science. It begins by looking at Ferguson’s critique of the philosophical vices of existing schools of ... More


The Unity of Moral Science

Barbara K. Redman

in Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine: Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019811
eISBN:
9780262317757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019811.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Policy supporting moral science must be constantly renewed in light of changing conditions, societal expectations, and ongoing discussions of what is involved with protecting science morality. ... More


The Tree of Philosophy: Descartes on Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, and Ethics

Roger Ariew

in Descartes and the First Cartesians

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199563517
eISBN:
9780191791208
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563517.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

For Descartes a person “should above all try to form for himself a code of morals sufficient to regulate the actions of his life.” After that, he should also study logic and practice for a long time ... More


Introduction

Craig Smith

in Adam Ferguson and the Idea of Civil Society: Moral Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781474413275
eISBN:
9781474460187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474413275.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Chapter 1 includes a biography of Adam Ferguson and examines the various critical interpretations of his thought. It concludes that each of these, stoic, civic republican, natural jurisprudence, ... More


Tocqueville the Moralist

Alan S. Kahan

in Tocqueville, Democracy, and Religion: Checks and Balances for Democratic Souls

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199681150
eISBN:
9780191761256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681150.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, Political History

An analysis of the Introduction to Democracy in America shows how, from the beginning, moral concerns and question of human character and greatness were central to Tocqueville, and that he ... More


Adam Ferguson and the Idea of Civil Society: Moral Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

Craig Smith

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781474413275
eISBN:
9781474460187
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474413275.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Adam Ferguson was a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh and a leading member of the Scottish Enlightenment. A friend of David Hume and Adam Smith, Ferguson was among the ... More


Conclusion: The Legacy of the Sentimental Empiricists

in Science in the Age of Sensibility: The Sentimental Empiricists of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226720784
eISBN:
9780226720852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226720852.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The claims of sentimental empiricists have shaped the understanding of the Enlightenment, the Revolution, French culture, and the history and nature of modern science. They have seen the Revolution ... More


Tocqueville, Democracy, and Religion: Checks and Balances for Democratic Souls

Alan S. Kahan

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780199681150
eISBN:
9780191761256
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681150.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, Political History

The relationship between democracy and religion is as important today as it was in Alexis de Tocqueville’s time. Tocqueville, Democracy, and Religion: Checks and Balances for Democratic Souls is a ... More


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